Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 684973, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/684973
Clinical Study

Parkinson’s Disease: Low-Dose Haloperidol Increases Dopamine Receptor Sensitivity and Clinical Response

1Department of Psychiatry, Alexandra Marine and General Hospital, 120 Napier Street, Goderich, ON, Canada N7A 1W5
2Clera Inc., 260 Heath Street West, Unit 605, Toronto, ON, Canada M5P 3L6

Received 23 July 2014; Accepted 9 November 2014; Published 20 November 2014

Academic Editor: Jose Rabey

Copyright © 2014 Craig J. Hudson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. H. Schapira, “Treatment options in the modern management of Parkinson disease,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 1083–1088, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Seeman, “Antiparkinson therapeutic potencies correlate with their affinities at dopamine D2High receptors,” Synapse, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 1013–1018, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Seeman, D. Weinshenker, R. Quirion et al., “Dopamine supersensitivity correlates with D2High states, implying many paths to psychosis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 3513–3518, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Alttoa, P. Seeman, K. Koiv, M. Eller, and J. Harro, “Rats with persistently high exploratory activity have both higher extracellular dopamine levels and higher proportion of D2High receptors in the striatum,” Synapse, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 443–446, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Seeman, J. Schwarz, J.-F. Chen et al., “Psychosis pathways converge via D2High dopamine receptors,” Synapse, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 319–346, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. R. C. Dias, L. W. de Matos, M. de Fátima dos Santos Sampaio, R. J. Carey, and M. P. Carrera, “Opposite effects of low versus high dose haloperidol treatments on spontaneous and apomorphine induced motor behavior: evidence that at a very low dose haloperidol acts as an indirect dopamine agonist,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 229, no. 1, pp. 153–159, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Seeman, “Atypical antipsychotics: mechanism of action,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 27–38, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Kapur, S. C. VanderSpek, B. A. Brownlee, and J. N. Nobrega, “Antipsychotic dosing in preclinical models is often unrepresentative of the clinical condition: a suggested solution based on in vivo occupancy,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 305, no. 2, pp. 625–631, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  9. J. Marinus, M. Visser, A. M. Stiggelbout et al., “A short scale for the assessment of motor impairments and disabilities in Parkinson's disease: the SPES/SCOPA,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 388–395, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus