Table 2: Univariate and multivariate comparison of the mean (standard deviation (SD)) scores of different motor, nonmotor, and quality of life (PDQ-39) scales between subgroups of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients regarding the age of disease onset.

Scale Domain Early-onset
()
Typical-onset
()
Univariate comparisonMultivariate comparison
Unadjusted
(95% CI)
valueAdjusted
(95% CI)
value

PDQ39Mobility26.6 (26.8)26.9 (24.5)−0.3 (−9.4–8.7)0.94−2.1 (−9.4–5.3)0.58
Activities of daily living (ADL)24.8 (25.0)21.9 (20.6)2.9 (−5.2–11.0)0.481.8 (−5.3–8.9)0.61
Emotional wellbeing32.3 (21.6)24.4 (22.7)7.9 (−0.1–15.9)6.3 (−1.3–14.0)0.11
Stigma25.1 (26.9)19.8 (24.6)5.3 (−3.7–14.4)0.255.6 (−4.0–15.1)0.25
Social support9.6 (15.7)6.2 (12.2)3.3 (−1.8–8.4)0.200.2 (−4.4–4.9)0.93
Cognitive impairment16.7 (18.1)16.8 (17.9)−0.1 (−6.5–6.3)0.970.1 (−6.4–6.5)0.99
Communication18.0 (22.6)11.9 (14.1)6.0 (−0.1–12.2)0.063.2 (−2.4–8.8)0.26
Bodily discomfort20.4 (20.2)20.7 (21.6)−0.3 (−7.9–7.3)0.93−1.9 (−9.0–5.2)0.60
Total21.9 (14.6)19.0 (13.5)2.9 (−2.17.8)0.251.6 (−2.86.0)0.49

HADSAnxiety7.5 (4.7)6.3 (5.3)1.2 (−0.6–3.1)0.181.2 (−0.6–3.0)0.20
Depression6.3 (4.5)4.5 (4.2)1.8 (0.3–3.3)1.4 (0–2.9)

FSSFatigue4.7 (1.8)4.4 (1.9)2.8 (−3.4–8.9)0.382.2 (−3.5–8.0)0.48

MNANutritional status24.4 (4.3)25.5 (2.8)−1.1 (−2.3–0.1)0.07−0.9 (−2.0–0.2)0.10

CI: confidence interval.
Difference is statistically significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
(Multivariate adjustment has been performed considering sex, education level, comorbidity index, and Hoehn and Yahr stage as potential confounders).