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Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2014, Article ID 929854, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/929854
Research Article

Oleanolic Acid Enhances the Beneficial Effects of Preconditioning on PC12 Cells

Department of Human Physiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban 4000, South Africa

Received 16 September 2014; Revised 22 October 2014; Accepted 27 October 2014; Published 13 November 2014

Academic Editor: Jan O. Aasly

Copyright © 2014 Babongile C. Ndlovu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Preconditioning triggers endogenous protection against subsequent exposure to higher concentrations of a neurotoxin. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to oleanolic acid (OA) enhances the protective effects of preconditioning on PC12 cells exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). A concentration response curve was constructed using 6-OHDA (50, 150, 300, and 600 μM). The experiment consisted of 6 groups: untreated, OA only, Group 1: cells treated with 6-OHDA (50 μM) for 1 hour, Group 2: cells treated with 6-OHDA (150 μM) for 1 hour, Group 3: cells treated with 6-OHDA (50 μM) for 30 minutes followed 6 hours later by treatment with 6-OHDA (150 μM) for 30 minutes, and Group 4: cells treated as in group 3 but also received OA immediately after the second 6-OHDA treatment. Cell viability and apoptotic ratio were assessed using the MTT and Annexin V staining tests, respectively. In preconditioned cells, we found that cell viability remained high following exposure to 6-OHDA (150 μM). OA treatment enhanced the protective effects of preconditioning. Similarly, with the annexin V apoptosis test, preconditioning protected the cell and this was enhanced by OA. Therefore, preexposure of PC12 cells to low 6-OHDA concentration can protect against subsequent toxic insults of 6-OHDA and OA enhances this protection.