Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 929854, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/929854
Research Article

Oleanolic Acid Enhances the Beneficial Effects of Preconditioning on PC12 Cells

Department of Human Physiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban 4000, South Africa

Received 16 September 2014; Revised 22 October 2014; Accepted 27 October 2014; Published 13 November 2014

Academic Editor: Jan O. Aasly

Copyright © 2014 Babongile C. Ndlovu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. V. Arumugam, M. Gleichmann, S.-C. Tang, and M. P. Mattson, “Hormesis/preconditioning mechanisms, the nervous system and aging,” Ageing Research Reviews, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 165–178, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Hoshida, N. Yamashita, K. Otsu, and M. Hori, “The importance of manganese superoxide dismutase in delayed preconditioning: involvement of reactive oxygen species and cytokines,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 495–505, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Nakano, C. P. Baines, S. O. Kim et al., “Ischemic preconditioning activates MAPKAPK2 in the isolated rabbit heart: evidence for involvement of p38 MAPK,” Circulation Research, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 144–151, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Jolly and R. I. Morimoto, “Role of the heat shock response and molecular chaperones in oncogenesis and cell death,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 92, no. 19, pp. 1564–1572, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Wang, “Hormesis, cell death, and regenerative medicine for neurodegenerative diseases,” Dose-Response, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 238–254, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. K. Leak, A. K. F. Liou, and M. J. Zigmond, “Effect of sublethal 6-hydroxydopamine on the response to subsequent oxidative stress in dopaminergic cells: evidence for preconditioning,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 1151–1163, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. A. Tran, M. K. McCoy, M. B. Sporn, and M. G. Tansey, “The synthetic triterpenoid CDDO-methyl ester modulates microglial activities, inhibits TNF production, and provides dopaminergic neuroprotection,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 5, article 14, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Liu, “Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 57–68, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Yang, N. Y. Calingasan, B. Thomas et al., “Neuroprotective effects of the triterpenoid, CDDO methyl amide, a potent inducer of Nrf2-mediated transcription,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 6, Article ID e5757, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. T. Musabayane, M. A. Tufts, and R. F. Mapanga, “Synergistic antihyperglycemic effects between plant-derived oleanolic acid and insulin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Renal Failure, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 832–839, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Z. Zhang, T. Wang, X. Cao, S. Sun, and L. Wang, “6-OHDA induces cycle reentry and apoptosis of PC12 cells through activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway,” Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Science), vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 97–100, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. Dauer and S. Przedborski, “Parkinson's disease: mechanisms and models,” Neuron, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 889–909, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. M. Gidday, “Cerebral preconditioning and ischaemic tolerance,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 437–448, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Z.-H. Chen, Y. Yoshida, Y. Saito, and E. Niki, “Adaptation to hydrogen peroxide enhances PC12 cell tolerance against oxidative damage,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 383, no. 3, pp. 256–259, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Han, H. Wang, H. Long, S. Nattel, and Z. Wang, “Oxidative preconditioning and apoptosis in L-cells: roles of protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinases,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 276, no. 28, pp. 26357–26364, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. T. Dinkova-Kostova, K. T. Liby, K. K. Stephenson et al., “Extremely potent triterpenoid inducers of the phase 2 response: correlations of protection against oxidant and inflammatory stress,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 12, pp. 4584–4589, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Neymotin, N. Y. Calingasan, E. Wille et al., “Neuroprotective effect of Nrf2/ARE activators, CDDO ethylamide and CDDO trifluoroethylamide, in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 88–96, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Stack, D. Ho, E. Wille et al., “Triterpenoids CDDO-ethyl amide and CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide improve the behavioral phenotype and brain pathology in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 147–158, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S.-J. Tsai and M.-C. Yin, “Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory protection of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in PC12 cells,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. H174–H178, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Garcia-Esparcia, F. Llorens, M. Carmona, and I. Ferrer, “Complex deregulation and expression of cytokines and mediators of the immune response in parkinson's disease brain is region dependent,” Brain Pathology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 584–598, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Martín, M. Hernández, C. Córdova, and M. L. Nieto, “Natural triterpenes modulate immune-inflammatory markers of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Therapeutic implications for multiple sclerosis,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 166, no. 5, pp. 1708–1723, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. O. Cho, J. Y. Ban, J. Y. Kim et al., “Anti-ischemic activities of Aralia cordata and its active component, oleanolic acid,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 923–932, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus