Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2015, Article ID 564095, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/564095
Research Article

The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson’s Disease Model Mice

1Fifth Department of Neurology, Cangzhou Central Hospital, No. 16 Xinhua Western Road, Cangzhou, Hebei 061000, China
2Hebei Province Key Laboratory of Brain Aging and Cognitive Neuroscience, No. 16 Xinhua Western Road, Cangzhou, Hebei 061000, China
3Department of Neurology, Cangzhou Central Hospital, No. 16 Xinhua Western Road, Cangzhou, Hebei 061000, China

Received 27 October 2014; Revised 24 January 2015; Accepted 24 January 2015

Academic Editor: Antonio Pisani

Copyright © 2015 Qiaoyun Dong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. A. Driver, G. Logroscino, J. M. Gaziano, and T. Kurth, “Incidence and remaining lifetime risk of Parkinson disease in advanced age,” Neurology, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 432–438, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. S. Buchman, J. M. Shulman, S. Nag et al., “Nigral pathology and parkinsonian signs in elders without Parkinson disease,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 258–266, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. G. Greenfield and F. D. Bosanquet, “The brain-stem lesions in Parkinsonism,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 213–226, 1953. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. O. Hornykiewicz, “Dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) and brain function,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 925–964, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. Lloyd and O. Hornykiewicz, “Parkinson's disease: activity of L-dopa decarboxylase in discrete brain regions,” Science, vol. 170, no. 3963, pp. 1212–1213, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Kastner, E. C. Hirsch, M. T. Herrero, F. Javoy-Agid, and Y. Agid, “Immunocytochemical quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase at a cellular level in the mesencephalon of control subjects and patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 1024–1034, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. E. Ahlskog, “Slowing Parkinson's disease progression: recent dopamine agonist trials,” Neurology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 381–389, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. O. Arias-Carrión, N. Freundlieb, W. H. Oertel, and G. U. Höglinger, “Adult neurogenesis and Parkinson's disease,” CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 326–335, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  9. V. Walsh and A. Cowey, “Transcranial magnetic stimulation and cognitive neuroscience,” Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. C. Ridding and J. C. Rothwell, “Is there a future for therapeutic use of transcranial magnetic stimulation?” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 559–567, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. F. Fregni and A. Pascual-Leone, “Technology insight: noninvasive brain stimulation in neurology—perspectives on the therapeutic potential of rTMS and tDCS,” Nature Clinical Practice Neurology, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 383–393, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Málly and T. W. Stone, “New advances in the rehabilitation of CNS diseases applying rTMS,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 165–177, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Post and M. E. Keck, “Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a therapeutic tool in psychiatry: what do we know about the neurobiological mechanisms?” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 193–215, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. C. Real, A. F. B. Ferreira, G. P. Chaves-Kirsten, A. S. Torrão, R. S. Pires, and L. R. G. Britto, “BDNF receptor blockade hinders the beneficial effects of exercise in a rat model of Parkinson's disease,” Neuroscience, vol. 237, pp. 118–129, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. Vijitruth, M. Liu, D.-Y. Choi, X. V. Nguyen, R. L. Hunter, and G. Bing, “Cyclooxygenase-2 mediates microglial activation and secondary dopaminergic cell death in the mouse MPTP model of Parkinson's disease,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 3, article 6, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Mori, S. Ohashi, M. Nakai, T. Moriizumi, and Y. Mitsumoto, “Neural mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction as detected by the tail suspension test in MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice,” Neuroscience Research, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 265–274, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Rousselet, C. Joubert, J. Callebert et al., “Behavioral changes are not directly related to striatal monoamine levels, number of nigral neurons, or dose of parkinsonian toxin MPTP in mice,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 218–228, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. Boraud, E. Bezard, D. Guehl, B. Bioulac, and C. Gross, “Effects of L-DOPA on neuronal activity of the globus pallidus externalis (GPe) and globus pallidus internalis (GPi) in the MPTP-treated monkey,” Brain Research, vol. 787, no. 1, pp. 157–160, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. R. DeLong, “Primate models of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 281–285, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Filion and L. Tremblay, “Abnormal spontaneous activity of globus pallidus neurons in monkeys with MPTP-induced parkinsonism,” Brain Research, vol. 547, no. 1, pp. 142–151, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Fox, R. Ingham, M. S. George et al., “Imaging human intra-cerebral connectivity by PET during TMS,” NeuroReport, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 2787–2791, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Fukudome, H. Goto, H. Izumoto, H. Matsuo, and N. Shibuya, “The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the patients with Parkinson's disease,” Rinshō Shinkeigaku, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 35–37, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. M. Khedr, J. C. Rothwell, O. A. Shawky, M. A. Ahmed, and A. Hamdy, “Effect of daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor performance in Parkinson's disease,” Movement Disorders, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 2201–2205, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. P. Lomarev, S. Kanchana, W. Bara-Jimenez, M. Iyer, E. M. Wassermann, and M. Hallett, “Placebo-controlled study of rTMS for the treatment of Parkinson's disease,” Movement Disorders, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 325–331, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. Maeda, J. P. Keenan, J. M. Tormos, H. Topka, and A. Pascual-Leone, “Interindividual variability of the modulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 425–430, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. M. Wassermann, J. Grafman, C. Berry et al., “Use and safety of a new repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulator,” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 412–417, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. E. Keck, T. Welt, M. B. Müller et al., “Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increases the release of dopamine in the mesolimbic and mesostriatal system,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 101–109, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Sedelis, K. Hofele, G. W. Auburger, S. Morgan, J. P. Huston, and R. K. W. Schwarting, “MPTP susceptibility in the mouse: behavioral, neurochemical, and histological analysis of gender and strain differences,” Behavior Genetics, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 171–182, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. E. Alexander and M. D. Crutcher, “Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: neural substrates of parallel processing,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 266–271, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. C. Daubner, J. Melendez, and P. F. Fitzpatrick, “Reversing the substrate specificities of phenylalanine and tyrosine hydroxylase: aspartate 425 of tyrosine hydroxylase is essential for L-DOPA formation,” Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 32, pp. 9652–9661, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. B. H. Youdim, W. Maruyama, and M. Naoi, “Neuropharmacological, neuroprotective and amyloid precursor processing properties of selective MAO-B inhibitor antiparkinsonian drug, rasagiline,” Drugs of Today, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 369–391, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. W. Cotman and N. C. Berchtold, “Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 295–301, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. Tajiri, T. Yasuhara, T. Shingo et al., “Exercise exerts neuroprotective effects on Parkinson's disease model of rats,” Brain Research, vol. 1310, pp. 200–207, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y.-S. Lau, G. Patki, K. Das-Panja, W.-D. Le, and S. O. Ahmad, “Neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of exercise in a chronic mouse model of Parkinson's disease with moderate neurodegeneration,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1264–1274, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. M. Gash, Z. Zhang, and G. Gerhardt, “Neuroprotective and neurorestorative properties of GDNF,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. S121–S125, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Grondin and D. M. Gash, “Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF): a drug candidate for the treatment of Parkinson's disease,” Journal of Neurology, vol. 245, no. 3, pp. P35–P42, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Y. Lee, S. H. Kim, A.-R. Ko et al., “Therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in an animal model of Parkinson's disease,” Brain Research, vol. 1537, pp. 290–302, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus