Parkinson’s Disease / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease: The Effects of Welsh-English Bilingualism on Executive Function

Table 1

Baseline demographics and disease variables.
(a)

Variable-mean value (SD)Monolingual Bilingual Chi squaredSignificanceANOVA Significance

Age71.5 (7.9)71.3 (10.5)0.01 .89
Age at diagnosis64.6 (9.2)65.2 (13.3)0.07 .79
Education years 13.0 (2.8)11.8 (2.3)5.26 .02
UPDRS motor20.4 (8.8)23.1 (12.2)1.49 .22
HADS depression3.9 (2.4)4.3 (3.1)0.59 .44
HADS anxiety4.7 (3.1)5.3 (3.7)0.78 .37
MMSE28.6 (2.0)27.9 (2.4)3.04 .08
LED576 (387)493 (386)1.171 .28
Anticholinergic cognitive burden0.47 (1.3)0.82 (1.3)1.74 .18
Male40310.09.46
Female1715

(b)

VariableCategoryMonolingual Bilingual Chi squaredSignificanceANOVA Significance

Socioeconomic status(I) Professional715.53.23
(II) Managerial/technical2117
(III N) nonmanual skilled98
(III M) manual skilled1410
(IV) Partly skilled 610
(V) Unskilled20

Education years category(1) 7–1120235.02.08
(2) 12–152319
(3) 16–20144

Education level category(1) Left before 16, no qualification92216.38.001
(2) Secondary only910
(3) Further education/vocational2911
(4) University & higher degrees103

Hoehn and
Yahr [20]
131322.19.33
21911
3 & 463

Classification based on occupation (64).
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and levodopa equivalent dose (LED).

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