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Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2016, Article ID 7049108, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7049108
Review Article

Parkinson’s Disease: The Mitochondria-Iron Link

Iron and Biology of Aging Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile

Received 21 January 2016; Revised 12 April 2016; Accepted 13 April 2016

Academic Editor: Rubén Gómez-Sánchez

Copyright © 2016 Yorka Muñoz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, and oxidative damage are conditions often found in damaged brain areas of Parkinson’s disease. We propose that a causal link exists between these three events. Mitochondrial dysfunction results not only in increased reactive oxygen species production but also in decreased iron-sulfur cluster synthesis and unorthodox activation of Iron Regulatory Protein 1 (IRP1), a key regulator of cell iron homeostasis. In turn, IRP1 activation results in iron accumulation and hydroxyl radical-mediated damage. These three occurrences—mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, and oxidative damage—generate a positive feedback loop of increased iron accumulation and oxidative stress. Here, we review the evidence that points to a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and iron accumulation as early events in the development of sporadic and genetic cases of Parkinson’s disease. Finally, an attempt is done to contextualize the possible relationship between mitochondria dysfunction and iron dyshomeostasis. Based on published evidence, we propose that iron chelation—by decreasing iron-associated oxidative damage and by inducing cell survival and cell-rescue pathways—is a viable therapy for retarding this cycle.