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Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2017, Article ID 5124328, 13 pages
Review Article

Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease: New and Emerging Targets for Refractory Motor and Nonmotor Symptoms

Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2G3

Correspondence should be addressed to Fang Ba; ac.atreblau@bf

Received 5 February 2017; Revised 12 May 2017; Accepted 6 June 2017; Published 6 July 2017

Academic Editor: Aparna Wagle Shukla

Copyright © 2017 Dustin Anderson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability (PI), in addition to numerous nonmotor manifestations. Many pharmacological therapies now exist to successfully treat PD motor symptoms; however, as the disease progresses, it often becomes challenging to treat with medications alone. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a crucial player in PD treatment, particularly for patients who have disabling motor complications from medical treatment. Well-established DBS targets include the subthalamic nucleus (STN), the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), and to a lesser degree the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus. Studies of alternative DBS targets for PD are ongoing, the majority of which have shown some clinical benefit; however, more carefully designed and controlled studies are needed. In the present review, we discuss the role of these new and emerging DBS targets in treating refractory axial motor symptoms and other motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS).