Parkinson’s Disease / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

A 10-Year Follow-Up of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Parkinson’s Disease

Table 1

Baseline characteristics for all participants in the study at baseline (year 0; n = 30) and for those who completed the 10-year follow-up (n = 17) both at baseline and at year 10a.

VariableYear 0 (n = 30)Year 0 (n = 17)Year 10 (n = 17)

Male gender, n (%)24 (80%)12 (70%)
Age (years), mean (SD)58.2 (6.6)57.2 (6.4)
Time since PD diagnosis (years), mean (SD)6.2 (4.8)5.3 (3.7)
Daily levodopa equivalent dose (total, mg)b920 (0–2012)875 (0–2012)975 (550–3643)
Daily levodopa equivalent dose (levodopa, mg)c675 (0–1550)625 (0–1550)725 (200–2250)
Daily levodopa equivalent dose (dopamine agonists, mg)d,e106 (0–320)180 (70–266)157 (104–210)
Hoehn and Yahr stage of PD (I–V)f,g,hII (I–III)II (I–III)III (II–IV)
UPDRS III, total motor score (0–108)g,h13 (3–30)14 (6–30)28 (15–47)
UPDRS III, axial/postural/gait score (0–28)g,h5 (1–10)4 (1–10)8 (3–17)
UPDRS III, resting tremor score (0–20)g,h1 (0–5)2 (0–5)1 (0–6)
UPDRS III, action tremor score (0–8)g,h0 (0–1)0 (0–1)0 (0–1)
UPDRS III, limb bradykinesia score (0–32)g,h5 (1–10)5 (1–10)13 (5–22)
UPDRS III, rigidity score (0–20)g,h2 (0–6)2 (0–6)3 (0–11)
UPDRS IV, dyskinesia score (0–13)g,h1 (0–4)1 (0–2)2 (0–8)
UPDRS IV, fluctuation score (0–7)g,h2 (0–3)2 (0–3)2 (0–3)
ESS daytime sleepiness score (0–24)g10.2 (0–21)11.0 (1–20)8 (1–18)
PSQI sleep quality score (0–21)g7 (2–20)7 (2–20)9 (2–14)
MADRS-S depression score (0–54)g11.5 (1–34)11.0 (1–34)11 (2–30)
Fatigue (FACIT-F) score (0–52), mean (SD)i,j35.6 (8.5)35.1 (9.7)21.0 (10.9)
HADS depression score (0–21)g,j5 (0–10)4 (0–10)6 (1–13)
HADS anxiety score (0–21)g,j5 (0–17)6 (0–17)7 (0–14)

aData are median (min-max) unless otherwise noted; bincluding all antiparkinsonian medications, derived according to Tomlinson et al. [24]; cincluding only levodopa (and associated enzyme inhibitors), derived according to Tomlinson et al. [24]; dincluding only dopamine agonists, derived according to Tomlinson et al. [24]; ebaseline (n = 9) and year 10 (n = 7); frange: I–V (I = mild unilateral disease; II = bilateral disease without postural impairment; III = bilateral disease with postural impairment, moderate disability; IV = severe disability, still able to walk and stand unassisted; and V = confined to bed or wheelchair unless aided); ghigh scores = more problems; has assessed during the “ON” phase; ihigher scores = less problems; jfrom year 1. ESS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale; PD, Parkinson’s disease; UPDRS, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale; FACIT-F, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale; SD, standard deviation; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index profile; MADRS-S, Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale-Self.

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