Table of Contents
Physiology Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 790540, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/790540
Research Article

Muscular Damage and Kidney Function in Rugby Players after Daily Whole Body Cryostimulation

1Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Via R. Galeazzi, 4-20161 Milano, Italy
2Institute of Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, National Research Council, Via Fratelli Cervi, 93-20090 Segrate, Italy
3Department of Multifunctional Rehabilitation, I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Via R. Galeazzi, 4-20161 Milano, Italy
4Centre of Systemic Cryotherapy, Poliambulatorio Bongi, Via Magli, 25034 Orzinuovi, Italy
5Cardiovascular Department, O.U Cardiology, Humanitas Gavazzeni, Via Mauro Gavazzeni, 21-24125 Bergamo, Italy
6Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milano, Via R. Galeazzi, 4-20161 Milano, Italy

Received 13 February 2014; Accepted 27 May 2014; Published 12 June 2014

Academic Editor: Beat Knechtle

Copyright © 2014 Giovanni Lombardi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Muscular damage, consequent to strenuous activities, could exceed the recovery potential of muscles and determine renal failure. Whole body cryostimulation is a cold-based therapy used to improve recovery or overcome fatigue symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated sessions of cryostimulation on muscle damage, renal function, and their relationship. Serum samples, from 27 elite rugby players, under training, before and after 2 sessions/day of cryotherapy over 7 days, were tested for markers of muscular (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase) and renal (creatinine, cystatin C) functions. eGFR was calculated with two formulas based on either serum creatinine concentration (MDRD) or serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations (creatinine/cystatin C CKD EPI). Pre- and posttreatment differences were determined by Wilcoxon’s test; correlations were evaluated with Spearman’s test. Cryostimulation helped muscular recovery (increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and the stabile creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities). Creatinine was unaffected while cystatin C was increased . Creatinine-based eGFR was not affected by cryostimulation, while creatinine/cystatin C-based eGFR showed a slight decrease . eGFR and muscular biomarkers were not correlated, suggesting a real recovery effect of cryotherapy. Cystatin C seemed more sensible than creatinine in evaluating the kidney function.