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Pulmonary Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 257496, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/257496
Review Article

Update on Pharmaceutical and Minimally Invasive Management Strategies for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

1Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, UC Davis School of Medicine and VA Northern California Health Care System, 4150 V Street, Suite 3400, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
2Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, UC Davis School of Medicine, 4150 V Street, Suite 3400, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA

Received 25 September 2010; Revised 21 January 2011; Accepted 22 February 2011

Academic Editor: Stefano Centanni

Copyright © 2011 Rokhsara Rafii et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating pulmonary disorder with systemic effects, and it is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. COPD patients not only develop respiratory limitations, but can also demonstrate systemic wasting, features of depression, and can succumb to social isolation. Smoking cessation is crucial, and pharmacotherapy with bronchodilators is helpful in symptom management. Inhaled corticosteroids may be beneficial in some patients. In addition, pulmonary rehabilitation and palliative care are important components under the right clinical circumstance. This review highlights current guidelines and management strategies for COPD and emphasizes novel pharmacotherapy and minimally invasive (nonsurgical) lung-volume reduction interventions that may prove to be of significant benefit in the future.