Pulmonary Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Protease Inhibitors Extracted from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Affect Kinin Release during Lung Inflammation Thu, 01 Dec 2016 11:29:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/9425807/ Inflammation is an essential process in many pulmonary diseases in which kinins are generated by protease action on kininogen, a phenomenon that is blocked by protease inhibitors. We evaluated kinin release in an in vivo lung inflammation model in rats, in the presence or absence of CeKI (C. echinata kallikrein inhibitor), a plasma kallikrein, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 inhibitor, and rCeEI (recombinant C. echinata elastase inhibitor), which inhibits these proteases and also neutrophil elastase. Wistar rats were intravenously treated with buffer (negative control) or inhibitors and, subsequently, lipopolysaccharide was injected into their lungs. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissue were collected. In plasma, kinin release was higher in the LPS-treated animals in comparison to CeKI or rCeEI groups. rCeEI-treated animals presented less kinin than CeKI-treated group. Our data suggest that kinins play a pivotal role in lung inflammation and may be generated by different enzymes; however, neutrophil elastase seems to be the most important in the lung tissue context. These results open perspectives for a better understanding of biological process where neutrophil enzymes participate and indicate these plant inhibitors and their recombinant correlates for therapeutic trials involving pulmonary diseases. Ilana Cruz-Silva, Viviane Abreu Nunes, Andrezza Justino Gozzo, Priscila Praxedes-Garcia, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Kazuaki Shimamoto, and Mariana Silva Araujo Copyright © 2016 Ilana Cruz-Silva et al. All rights reserved. Early-Phase Recovery of Cardiorespiratory Measurements after Maximal Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Sun, 27 Nov 2016 13:36:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/9160781/ Background. This study investigated respiratory gas exchanges and heart rate (HR) kinetics during early-phase recovery after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) grouped according to airflow limitation. Methods. Thirty control individuals (control group: CG) and 81 COPD patients (45 with “mild” or “moderate” airflow limitation, , versus 36 with “severe” or “very severe” COPD, ) performed a maximal CPET. The first 3 min of recovery kinetics was investigated for oxygen uptake (O2), minute ventilation (), respiratory equivalence, and HR. The time for O2 to reach 25% (T1/4O2) of peak value was also determined and compared. Results. The O2, , and HR recovery kinetics were significantly slower in both COPD groups than CG (). Moreover, group had significantly higher O2 and during recovery than group (). T1/4O2 significantly differed between groups (;  s in CG,  s in group, and  s in ) and was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in one second in COPD patients (, ) and with peak power output (, ). Conclusion. The COPD groups showed slower kinetics in the early recovery period than CG, and the kinetics varied with severity of airflow obstruction. Marie Bellefleur, David Debeaumont, Alain Boutry, Marie Netchitailo, Antoine Cuvelier, Jean-François Muir, Catherine Tardif, and Jérémy Coquart Copyright © 2016 Marie Bellefleur et al. All rights reserved. When Women with Cystic Fibrosis Become Mothers: Psychosocial Impact and Adjustments Wed, 23 Nov 2016 10:46:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/9458980/ Advances in the treatment and life expectancy of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients mean that motherhood is now a realistic option for many women with CF. This qualitative study explored the psychosocial impact and adjustments made when women with CF become mothers. Women with CF () were recruited via an online forum and participated in semistructured telephone interviews about their experiences of becoming a mother. Transcriptions were analysed using Grounded Theory. Analysis revealed three core categories: (i) “Living with CF”: how becoming a mother impacted on health and treatment adherence, requiring a change in support from the CF team, (ii) “Becoming a Mother”: balancing issues common to new mothers with their CF, and (iii) “Pooling Personal Resources”: coping strategies in managing the dual demands of child and CF care. Participants experienced a variety of complex psychosocial processes. Most participants acknowledged an initial negative impact on CF care; however over time they reported successful adaptation to managing dual commitments and that adherence and motivation to stay well had improved. This study highlights the need for preconceptual psychosocial counselling and postpartum adjustment to CF care. Sophie L. Cammidge, Alistair J. A. Duff, Gary J. Latchford, and Christine Etherington Copyright © 2016 Sophie L. Cammidge et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosis of Peripheral Lung Lesions via Conventional Flexible Bronchoscopy with Multiplanar CT Planning Sun, 13 Nov 2016 11:32:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/5048961/ Background. Conventional flexible bronchoscopy has limited sensitivity in the diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions and is dependent on lesion size. However, advancement of CT imaging offers multiplanar reconstruction facilitating enhanced preprocedure planning. This study aims to report efficacy and safety while considering the impact of patient selection and multiplanar CT planning. Method. Prospective case series of patients with peripheral lung lesions suspected of having lung cancer who underwent flexible bronchoscopy (forceps biopsy and lavage). Endobronchial lesions were excluded. Patients with negative results underwent CT-guided transthoracic needle aspiration, surgical biopsy, or clinical-radiological surveillance to establish the final diagnosis. Results. 226 patients were analysed. The diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy was 80.1% (181/226) with a sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of 100%. In patients with a positive CT-Bronchus sign, the diagnostic yield was 82.4% compared to 72.8% with negative CT-Bronchus sign (). Diagnostic yield was 84.9% in lesions > 20 mm and 63.0% in lesions ≤ 20 mm (). Six (2.7%) patients had transient hypoxia and 2 (0.9%) had pneumothorax. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusion. Flexible bronchoscopy with appropriate patient selection and preprocedure planning is more efficacious in obtaining a diagnosis in peripheral lung lesions compared to historical data. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01374542. Marianne Anastasia De Roza, Kien Hong Quah, Cheong Kiat Tay, Weiquan Toh, HuiHua Li, Ganesh Kalyanasundaram, and Devanand Anantham Copyright © 2016 Marianne Anastasia De Roza et al. All rights reserved. Cystatin C Levels in Middle-Aged Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Mon, 24 Oct 2016 06:50:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/8081723/ Background. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Cystatin C (Cyst C) is a novel biomarker of both latent renal damage and cardiovascular disease. Aim of the study was to measure serum levels of Cyst C, as well as IL-8 and CRP, in otherwise healthy OSAS patients. Methods. 84 individuals examined with polysomnography for OSAS symptoms without known comorbidities were prospectively recruited. Results. According to apnea hypopnea index (AHI) subjects were divided in two groups: OSAS group (AHI > 5/hour, ) and controls (AHI < 5/hour, ), which were age- and BMI-matched. Cyst C levels were higher in OSAS patients versus controls ( versus  ng/mL, resp.; ) while serum IL-8 and CRP levels did not differ significantly. Positive correlation was found between Cyst C levels and respiratory disturbance index (RDI) (, ) and percentage of time with oxygen saturation <90% (, ) and negative correlation was found between Cyst C levels and average oxygen saturation during sleep (, ). After adjustment for age and BMI, RDI was the only independent predictor of Cyst C levels (β = 0.256, ). Conclusion. Cyst C serum levels are increased in OSAS patients without comorbidities, suggesting an increased renal and cardiovascular disease risk. Kostas Archontogeorgis, Evangelia Nena, Christina Tsigalou, Athanasios Voulgaris, Maria Xanthoudaki, Marios Froudarakis, and Paschalis Steiropoulos Copyright © 2016 Kostas Archontogeorgis et al. All rights reserved. Minimally Invasive Methods for Staging in Lung Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Thu, 13 Oct 2016 15:18:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/1024709/ Introduction. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a procedure that provides access to the mediastinal staging; however, EBUS cannot be used to stage all of the nodes in the mediastinum. In these cases, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for complete staging. Objective. To provide a synthesis of the evidence on the diagnostic performance of EBUS + EUS in patients undergoing mediastinal staging. Methods. Systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic yield of EBUS + EUS compared with surgical staging. Two researchers performed the literature search, quality assessments, data extractions, and analyses. We produced a meta-analysis including sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio analysis. Results. Twelve primary studies (1515 patients) were included; two were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and ten were prospective trials. The pooled sensitivity for combined EBUS + EUS was 87% (CI 84–89%) and the specificity was 99% (CI 98–100%). For EBUS + EUS performed with a single bronchoscope group, the sensitivity improved to 88% (CI 83.1–91.4%) and specificity improved to 100% (CI 99-100%). Conclusion. EBUS + EUS is a highly accurate and safe procedure. The combined procedure should be considered in selected patients with lymphadenopathy noted at stations that are not traditionally accessible with conventional EBUS. Gonzalo Labarca, Carlos Aravena, Francisco Ortega, Alex Arenas, Adnan Majid, Erik Folch, Hiren J. Mehta, Michael A. Jantz, and Sebastian Fernandez-Bussy Copyright © 2016 Gonzalo Labarca et al. All rights reserved. Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Levels as Indicators of Asthma Severity Wed, 12 Oct 2016 08:26:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/1643717/ Background. Serum magnesium levels affect the concentration of circulating vitamin D in blood and subsequently it affects the immunity; thus it plays significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma, in adults, is less studied and hypomagnesemia along with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common in asthmatic individuals, which causes frequent asthma attacks, respiratory infections, severe exacerbations, and poor response to bronchodilators. Objective. To detect the magnitude of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and serum magnesium levels among asthmatic patients and to correlate them with the severity of asthma. Materials and Methods. This is a cross-sectional case-control study which includes 60 patients of chronic stable asthma and 60 healthy controls. After taking clinical history and systemic examination, pulmonary function test was done. Serum levels of magnesium, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D], and calcium were measured in all the subjects. Results. Significant correlation was found between vitamin D deficiency, hypomagnesemia, and asthma severity. Serum calcium levels were unaffected by that. Conclusion. Vitamin D and serum magnesium deficiency are highly prevalent in patients with asthma. Increased asthma severity, frequency of attacks, and exacerbation are associated with lower levels of one or both. Serum 25(OH)D and magnesium levels may serve as important markers of asthma severity. Mohammed Nadeem Shaikh, Brahma Reddy Malapati, Ruchi Gokani, Bhavita Patel, and Mitul Chatriwala Copyright © 2016 Mohammed Nadeem Shaikh et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Rats Causes an Imbalance in the Asymmetric Dimethylarginine/Nitric Oxide Pathway and ROS Activity: A Possible Synergistic Mechanism for Altitude Pulmonary Hypertension? Mon, 30 May 2016 06:39:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/6578578/ Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and chronic hypoxia (CH) are associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, may contribute to HAPH. This study assessed changes in the ADMA/NO pathway and the underlying mechanisms in rat lungs following exposure to CIH or CH simulated in a hypobaric chamber at 428 Torr. Twenty-four adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups: CIH2x2 (2 days of hypoxia/2 days of normoxia), CH, and NX (permanent normoxia), for 30 days. All analyses were performed in whole lung tissue. L-Arginine and ADMA were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Under both hypoxic conditions right ventricular hypertrophy was observed () and endothelial NOS mRNA increased (), but the phosphorylated/nonphosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) ratio was unchanged. ADMA increased (), whereas dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) activity decreased only under CH (). Although arginase activity increased () and L-arginine exhibited no changes, the L-arginine/ADMA ratio decreased significantly (). Moreover, NOX4 expression increased only under CH (), but malondialdehyde (MDA) increased (up to 2-fold) equally in CIH2x2 and CH (). Our results suggest that ADMA and oxidative stress likely reduce NO bioavailability under altitude hypoxia, which implies greater pulmonary vascular reactivity and tone, despite the more subdued effects observed under CIH. Nicole Lüneburg, Patricia Siques, Julio Brito, Karem Arriaza, Eduardo Pena, Hans Klose, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, and Rainer H. Böger Copyright © 2016 Nicole Lüneburg et al. All rights reserved. Tolerability of Nasal Delivery of Humidified and Warmed Air at Different Temperatures: A Randomised Double-Blind Pilot Study Sun, 03 Apr 2016 12:49:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/7951272/ Objectives. Delivery of warmed, humidified air via nasal high flow therapy could potentially reduce replication of temperature-sensitive viruses in the upper respiratory tract. This study investigates whether nasal high flow therapy is well tolerated by healthy adults at 37°C and 41°C. Methods. In this randomised, double-blind, controlled crossover pilot trial, nasal high flow therapy was used to deliver humidified air at 35 L/min, at either 37°C or 41°C, for three one-hour sessions of use over one day. The alternative was delivered at least 14 days later. Ten healthy, nonsmoking adults were asked, via questionnaire after each day’s use, whether they would use nasal high flow therapy while being unwell with a cold or flu if it was demonstrated to improve symptoms. Results. All participants completed both interventions. Eighty percent responded “yes” to future use of nasal high flow therapy, for both 37°C and 41°C. There was no significant change from baseline in saccharin times following either intervention or in the following morning. Conclusions. Delivering humidified air via nasal high flow therapy at both 37°C and 41°C is well tolerated by healthy adults. This supports investigation into the potential use of nasal high flow therapy as treatment in viral upper respiratory tract infections. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ACTRN12614000183684 (tolerability study of nasal delivery of humidified & warmed air). Susan Bibby, Sumeet Reddy, Terrianne Cripps, Steve McKinstry, Mark Weatherall, Richard Beasley, and Janine Pilcher Copyright © 2016 Susan Bibby et al. All rights reserved. Liver Cirrhosis and Diabetes Mellitus Are Risk Factors for Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Patients with Healthcare-Associated or Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia Mon, 22 Feb 2016 14:29:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/4706150/ Background. The risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) pneumonia are not fully identified. The aim of this work was to find out the clinical characteristics associated with S. aureus infection in patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), which may be applicable for more appropriate selection of empiric antibiotic therapy. Methods. From July 2007 to June 2010, patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit with severe HCAP/HAP and severe sepsis were enrolled in this study. Lower respiratory tract sample was semiquantitatively cultured. Initial broad-spectrum antibiotics were chosen by Taiwan or American guidelines for pneumonia management. Standard bundle therapies were provided to all patients according to the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Results. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. Patients with positive isolation of S. aureus in culture had significantly higher history of liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus, with odds ratios of 3.098 and 1.899, respectively. The S. aureus pneumonia was not correlated with history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and hemodialysis. Conclusion. Liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus may be risk factors for S. aureus infection in patients with severe HCAP or HAP. Huang-Pin Wu, Chien-Ming Chu, Chun-Yao Lin, Chung-Chieh Yu, Chung-Ching Hua, Teng-Jen Yu, and Yu-Chih Liu Copyright © 2016 Huang-Pin Wu et al. All rights reserved. The Protective Effect of Naringin against Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Wistar Rats Wed, 10 Feb 2016 10:29:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/7601393/ The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of naringin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups (control, bleomycin alone, bleomycin + naringin 40, and bleomycin + naringin 80) were used. Rats were administered a single dose of bleomycin (5 mg/kg; via the tracheal cannula) alone or followed by either naringin 40 mg/kg (orally) or naringin 80 mg/kg (orally) or water (1 mL, orally) for 14 days. Rats and lung tissue were weighed to determine the lung index. TNF-α and IL-1β levels, hydroxyproline content, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assayed. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and 0.1% toluidine blue. TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA levels and hydroxyproline content significantly increased () and GPx and SOD activities significantly decreased in bleomycin group (). Naringin at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-1β activity, hydroxyproline content, and MDA level () and increased GPx and SOD activities (). Histological evidence supported the results. These results show that naringin has the potential of reducing the toxic effects of bleomycin and may provide supportive therapy for conventional treatment methods for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Nergiz H. Turgut, Haki Kara, Sahende Elagoz, Koksal Deveci, Huseyin Gungor, and Emre Arslanbas Copyright © 2016 Nergiz H. Turgut et al. All rights reserved. Study of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Subjects with Suspected Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Pilot Study in Vietnam Wed, 13 Jan 2016 14:19:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/3050918/ Background and Objective. The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), reflecting the activity of inducible NO synthase in airway epithelium, has been found to increase in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to measure eNO concentration in patients with suspected OSA and to correlate different eNO parameters with clinical and sleep apnea characteristics. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, all patients underwent in-lab overnight polysomnography (PSG) and eNO measurement using a method of multiple flow rates before and after PSG (pre- and post-PSG). Results. According to the result of PSG, 82 persons were divided into two groups: control subjects (; years) and patients with OSA defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5/hour (; years). Body mass index (BMI) and neck and abdomen circumferences of OSA patients were significantly higher than those from control subjects. In OSA group, post-PSG alveolar NO concentration (CANO) ( ppb) was significantly higher than pre-PSG CANO ( ppb; ). Significant correlations have been found between CANO and AHI () and between CANO and nadir SpO2 (). The daytime CANO value of more than 4.1 ppb can be used to screen symptomatic subjects for the presence of OSA with a high specificity of 93.3%. Conclusion. Our findings indicate CANO as a surrogate marker for OSA in persons with suggestive symptoms. Sy Duong-Quy, Thong Hua-Huy, Huyen-Tran Tran-Mai-Thi, Nhat-Nam Le-Dong, Timothy J. Craig, and Anh-Tuan Dinh-Xuan Copyright © 2016 Sy Duong-Quy et al. All rights reserved. The Interpretation of Dyspnea in the Patient with Asthma Thu, 24 Dec 2015 10:03:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/869673/ Physicians have noted dyspnea in severely ill asthmatic patients to be associated with fright or panic; in more stable patients dyspnea may reflect characteristics including lung function, personality and behavioral traits. This study evaluates the symptom of dyspnea in 32 asthmatic patients twice: first when acutely ill and again after an initial response to therapy. Spirometry was performed, dyspnea quantified (Borg scale), and panic assessed with a specialized measure of acute panic (the acute panic inventory (API)) in the 32 patients before and again after treatment. After treatment, questionnaires to evaluate somatization and panic disorder were also administered. When acutely ill, both the API and all spirometric measures (PEFR; FEV1; IC) correlated with dyspnea. Multiple linear regression showed that measures of the API, the peak expiratory flow rate, and female sex taken together accounted for 41% of dyspnea in acute asthma. After treatment, the API again predicted dyspnea while spirometric data did not. Those subjects who described themselves as having chronic panic disorder reported high grades of dyspnea after treatment also. We conclude that interpretations of the self-report of asthma differ between acutely ill and stable asthmatic patients. Marc H. Lavietes Copyright © 2015 Marc H. Lavietes. All rights reserved. Patients with MAC Lung Disease Have a Low Visceral Fat Area and Low Nutrient Intake Sun, 29 Nov 2015 12:04:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/218253/ Objective. This study aimed to examine the nutritional status and nutrient intake of patients with MAC lung disease with a focus on visceral fat area. Patients and Methods. Among 116 patients of our hospital with nontuberculous mycobacteriosis who were registered between May 2010 and August 2011, 103 patients with MAC lung disease were included in this study. In all patients, nutritional status and nutrient intake were prospectively examined. Results. Patients were 23 men and 80 women (mean age, years). BMI (kg/m2) at the time of registration was in men and in women. Visceral fat area (cm2) was significantly lower in women () than in men () (). The comparison with general healthy adults according to age revealed a markedly reduced visceral fat area among patients with MAC lung disease. With respect to nutrient intake, energy adequacy (%), protein adequacy (%), lipid adequacy (%), and carbohydrate adequacy (%) ratios were all low at the time of registration. BMI was significantly correlated with protein adequacy () and lipid adequacy () ratios, while no association was found between visceral fat area and nutrient intake. Conclusion. Patients with MAC lung disease had a low visceral fat area and low nutrient intake. Kentaro Wakamatsu, Nobuhiko Nagata, Sanae Maki, Hisamitsu Omori, Hiroyuki Kumazoe, Kayoko Ueno, Yuko Matsunaga, Makiko Hara, Koji Takakura, Nagisa Fukumoto, Nobuhisa Ando, Mami Morishige, Takashi Akasaki, Ichiro Inoshima, Shinji Ise, Miiru Izumi, and Masayuki Kawasaki Copyright © 2015 Kentaro Wakamatsu et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion Tue, 24 Nov 2015 14:03:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/416179/ There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up. Nobukazu Fujimoto, Kenichi Gemba, Keisuke Aoe, Katsuya Kato, Takako Yokoyama, Ikuji Usami, Kazuo Onishi, Keiichi Mizuhashi, Toshikazu Yusa, and Takumi Kishimoto Copyright © 2015 Nobukazu Fujimoto et al. All rights reserved. Statins in Asthma: Potential Beneficial Effects and Limitations Thu, 05 Nov 2015 07:43:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/835204/ Asthma’s sustenance as a global pandemic, across centuries, can be attributed to the lack of an understanding of its workings and the inability of the existing treatment modalities to provide a long lasting cure without major adverse effects. The discovery of statins boosted by a better comprehension of the pathophysiology of asthma in the past few decades has opened up a potentially alternative line of treatment that promises to be a big boon for the asthmatics globally. However, the initial excellent results from the preclinical and animal studies have not borne the results in clinical trials that the scientific world was hoping for. In light of this, this review analyzes the ways by which statins could benefit in asthma via their pleiotropic anti-inflammatory properties and explain some of the queries raised in the previous studies and provide recommendations for future studies in this field. Dipanjan Bhattacharjee, Bharti Chogtu, and Rahul Magazine Copyright © 2015 Dipanjan Bhattacharjee et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Symptom Perception Interventions on Trigger Identification and Quality of Life in Children with Asthma Wed, 28 Oct 2015 13:56:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/825137/ Background. Management of individual triggers is suboptimal in practice. In this project, we investigated the impact of symptom perception interventions on asthma trigger identification and self-reported asthma quality of life. Methods. Children with asthma () participated in three asthma education sessions and then were randomized first to one of three home monitoring conditions (symptom monitoring and peak flow training with feedback, peak flow training without feedback, or no peak flow training) and then subsequently to one of three resistive load discrimination training conditions (signal detection training with feedback, signal detection training without feedback, or no training). Triggers were reported at enrollment, following home monitoring, and following discrimination training; quality of life was measured after home monitoring and after resistive load testing. Results. Symptom perception interventions resulted in increases in reported triggers, which increased reliably as a function of home monitoring, and increased further in participants who completed discrimination training with feedback. Increases in the number of reported asthma triggers were associated with decreases in quality of life. Discussion. Patients may benefit from strategies that make trigger-symptom contingencies clear. Complementary strategies are needed to address changes in the perceived burden of asthma which comes from awareness of new asthma triggers. Thomas Janssens and Andrew Harver Copyright © 2015 Thomas Janssens and Andrew Harver. All rights reserved. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality Tue, 27 Oct 2015 07:32:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/546106/ Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment included male gender (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.15–3.65) and nonadherence to previous treatment (OR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.96–5.96). In addition, the presence of extrapulmonary TB was a protective factor (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14–0.76). The following risk factors were associated with mortality: age over 40 years (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.76–3.85), coinfection with HIV (OR = 6.01, 95% CI = 3.78–9.56), illiteracy (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.27–2.75), the presence of severe extrapulmonary TB (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.24–4.38), and retreatment after relapse (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.01–3.75). Conclusions. Male gender and retreatment after abandonment were independent risk factors for nonadherence to TB treatment. Furthermore, age over 40 years, coinfection with HIV, illiteracy, severe extrapulmonary TB, and retreatment after relapse were associated with higher TB mortality. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of direct measures that will control the identified risk factors to reduce the rates of treatment failure and TB-associated mortality. Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes, Meire Cardoso da Mota Bastos, Renata Magliano Marins, Aline Alves Barbosa, Luiz Clóvis Parente Soares, Annelise Maria de Oliveira Wilken de Abreu, and João Tadeu Damian Souto Filho Copyright © 2015 Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge Level of the Primary Healthcare Providers on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Mon, 26 Oct 2015 11:41:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/538246/ Introduction. Awareness of the healthcare providers on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in our country and all over the world, and on pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) which plays an important role in its nonpharmacological treatment will provide effectiveness in diagnosis and treatment of COPD. The present study aimed at determining knowledge level of the healthcare providers about COPD and PR. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, family practitioners and staff of home-care in central county of Manisa City were applied a questionnaire in order to determine their knowledge level on COPD and pulmonary rehabilitation during the in-service training on “pulmonary rehabilitation, home-care services for the pulmonary diseases, and respiratory exercises.” Results. 65.5% of the healthcare providers responded to the survey. Rate of those correctly knowing at least one of four items was 97.2%. No responder knew all items correctly. Average value for correct answers was 5.30 ± 2.1 (range: 1–10). The physicians, men, and those working in family health centers had higher level of knowledge on COPD compared to nonphysician healthcare providers , women , and those working in other practices , respectively. Conclusion. Knowledge level of the primary healthcare providers on COPD and PR remains inadequate. Dynamic postgraduate training on this topic will be useful in referring the patients to centers giving service for this condition. Tuğba Göktalay, Ayşe Nur Tuncal, Seçil Sarı, Galip Köroğlu, Yavuz Havlucu, and Arzu Yorgancıoğlu Copyright © 2015 Tuğba Göktalay et al. All rights reserved. Intravenous Dexmedetomidine Provides Superior Patient Comfort and Tolerance Compared to Intravenous Midazolam in Patients Undergoing Flexible Bronchoscopy Mon, 12 Oct 2015 08:21:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/727530/ Dexmedetomidine, an α2 agonist, has demonstrated its effectiveness as a sedative during awake intubation, but its utility in fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) is not clear. We evaluated the effects of midazolam and dexmedetomidine on patient’s response to FOB. The patients received either midazolam, 0.02 mg/kg (group M, ), or dexmedetomidine, 1 µg/kg (group D, ). A composite score of five different parameters and a numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain intensity and distress were used to assess patient response during FOB. Patients rated the quality of sedation and level of discomfort 24 h after the procedure. Ease of bronchoscopy, rescue medication requirement, and haemodynamic variables were noted. Ideal or acceptable composite score was observed in 15 and 26 patients, respectively, in group M (14.48 ± 3.65) and group D (9.41 ± 3.13), . NRS showed that 11 patients in group M had severe pain and discomfort as compared to one patient with severe pain and two with severe discomfort in group D during the procedure, . Rescue midazolam requirement was significantly higher in group M (). We conclude that during FOB, under topical airway anaesthesia, IV dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg) provides superior patient comfort and tolerance as compared to IV midazolam (0.02 mg/kg). Umesh Goneppanavar, Rahul Magazine, Bhavya Periyadka Janardhana, and Shreepathi Krishna Achar Copyright © 2015 Umesh Goneppanavar et al. All rights reserved. A Rationale for Going Back to the Future: Use of Disposable Spacers for Pressurised Metered Dose Inhalers Sun, 27 Sep 2015 07:14:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/176194/ The introduction of pressurised metered dose inhalers (MDIs) in the mid-1950s completely transformed respiratory treatment. Despite decades of availability and healthcare support and development of teaching aids and devices to promote better use, poor pMDI user technique remains a persistent issue. The main pMDI user aid is the spacer/valved holding chamber (VHC) device. Spacer/chamber features (size, shape, configuration, construction material, and hygiene considerations) can vie with clinical effectiveness (to deliver the same dose as a correctly used pMDI), user convenience, cost, and accessibility. Unsurprisingly, improvised, low-cost alternatives (plastic drink bottles, paper cups, and paper towel rolls) have been pressed into seemingly effective service. A UK law change permitting schools to hold emergency inhalers and spacers has prompted a development project to design a low-cost, user-friendly, disposable, and recyclable spacer. This paper spacer requires neither preuse priming nor washing, and has demonstrated reproducible lung delivery of salbutamol sulphate pMDI, comparable to an industry-standard VHC, an alternative paperboard VHC, and pMDI alone. This new device appears to perform better than these other VHC devices at the low flow rates thought achievable by paediatric patients. The data suggest that this disposable spacer may have a place in the single-use emergency setting. Mark Sanders and Ronald Bruin Copyright © 2015 Mark Sanders and Ronald Bruin. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Anthropometric and Metabolic Parameters in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Tue, 14 Jul 2015 07:16:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/189761/ Aims. Sleep disorders have recently become a significant public health problem worldwide and have deleterious health consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep-related breathing disorders. We aimed to evaluate anthropometric measurements, glucose metabolism, and cortisol levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods. A total of 50 patients with a body mass index ≥30 and major OSA symptoms were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements of the patients were recorded and blood samples were drawn for laboratory analysis. A 24-hour urine sample was also collected from each subject for measurement of 24-hour cortisol excretion. Patients were divided equally into 2 groups according to polysomnography results: control group with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) <5 () and OSA group with an AHI ≥5 (). Results. Neck and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, late-night serum cortisol, morning serum cortisol after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test, and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels were significantly higher in OSA patients compared to control subjects. Newly diagnosed DM was more frequent in patients with OSA than control subjects (32% versus 8%, ). There was a significant positive correlation between AHI and neck circumference, glucose, and late-night serum cortisol. Conclusions. Our study indicates that increased waist and neck circumferences constitute a risk for OSA regardless of obesity status. In addition, OSA has adverse effects on endocrine function and glucose metabolism. Yaşar Yildirim, Süreyya Yilmaz, Mehmet Güven, Faruk Kılınç, Ali Veysel Kara, Zülfükar Yilmaz, Gökhan Kırbaş, Alpaslan Kemal Tuzcu, and Fatma Yılmaz Aydın Copyright © 2015 Yaşar Yildirim et al. All rights reserved. Markers of Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Coronary Artery Disease Mon, 18 May 2015 12:45:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/621450/ Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia during sleep. We tested the hypothesis that nocturnal myocardial ischemia is detectable by ST segment depression and elevation of high sensitive troponin T (hsTrop T) and B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with OSA and coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD). Twenty-one patients with OSA and CAD and 20 patients with OSA alone underwent in-hospital polysomnography. Blood samples for hsTrop T and NT-proBNP measurements were drawn before and after sleep. ST segment depression was measured at the time of maximum oxygen desaturation during sleep. The apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI), oxygen saturation nadir, and time in bed with oxygen saturation of ≤80% were similar in both groups. Levels of hsTrop T and NT-proBNP did not differ significantly before and after sleep but NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in patients suffering from OSA and CAD compared to patients with OSA alone. No significant ST depression was found at the time of oxygen saturation nadir in either group. Despite the fact that patients with untreated OSA and coexisting CAD experienced severe nocturnal hypoxemia, we were unable to detect myocardial ischemia or myocyte necrosis based on significant ST segment depression or elevation of hsTrop T and NT-proBNP, respectively. Misa Valo, Annette Wons, Albert Moeller, and Claudius Teupe Copyright © 2015 Misa Valo et al. All rights reserved. Higher Mobility Scores in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Are Associated with Better Lung Function Wed, 18 Feb 2015 09:18:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/423219/ Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mobility and physical activity were associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Design. This was a prospective cohort observational study in an urban, academic, specialized care center. Participants were ambulatory, nonhospitalized adults with CF. Main Outcome Measures. Mobility was assessed monthly by the Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire and quarterly by pedometer. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Results. Twenty-seven subjects participated. Subjects recorded mean pedometer steps of 20,213 ± 11,331 over three days and FEV1% predicted of 77.48% ± 22.60% over one year. The LSA score at enrollment was correlated with initial pedometer steps ( and ), and mean LSA score over one year was correlated with mean number of steps ( and ). LSA mobility and pedometer scores were correlated with FEV1% predicted at enrollment and throughout the study. Conclusions. Mobility and physical activity measured by LSA questionnaire and pedometer are positively associated with lung function in adults with CF. This study confirms the importance of mobility and physical activity and supports the utility of a simple office-based questionnaire as a measure of mobility in adults with CF. Aneesha Thobani, Jessica A. Alvarez, Shaina Blair, Kaila Jackson, Eric R. Gottlieb, Seth Walker, and Vin Tangpricha Copyright © 2015 Aneesha Thobani et al. All rights reserved. Correlation between Clinical Characteristics and Chest Computed Tomography Findings of Pulmonary Cryptococcosis Thu, 12 Feb 2015 14:24:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/703407/ Objective. The aim of this study was to review HIV-negative patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis to analyze the correlations between clinical characteristics and chest computed tomography (CT) findings. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 16 HIV-negative patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis diagnosed at our institution, and clinical characteristics of the patients with nodules or masses without ground-glass attenuation (GGA)/consolidation type were compared with those of patients with inclusive GGA or consolidation type. Results. Host status was immunocompromised (81.2%) in most of the patients, and 6 (37.5%) were asymptomatic. The most frequent radiologic abnormalities on chest CT scans were one or more nodules (87.5%), GGA (37.5%), and consolidations (18.8%). Most lesions were located in the lower lung. Levels of hemoglobin and platelets were significantly lower in patients with inclusive GGA or consolidation type. Although the differences were not significant, patients with inclusive GGA or consolidation type tended to have a C-reactive protein level of ≥1.0 mg/dL. Conclusion. If a patient with anemia and thrombocytopenia shows GGA or consolidation in the lung, pulmonary cryptococcosis should be given careful consideration. Hideaki Yamakawa, Masahiro Yoshida, Masami Yabe, Emiri Baba, Keitaro Okuda, Shota Fujimoto, Hiroaki Katagi, Takeo Ishikawa, Masamichi Takagi, and Kazuyoshi Kuwano Copyright © 2015 Hideaki Yamakawa et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Practical Guidelines: Lung Transplantation in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis” Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:36:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/698460/ T. O. Hirche, C. Knoop, H. Hebestreit, D. Shimmin, A. Solé, J. S. Elborn, H. Ellemunter, P. Aurora, M. Hogardt, T. O. F. Wagner, and ECORN-CF Study Group Copyright © 2015 T. O. Hirche et al. All rights reserved. In Situ Thrombosis of Small Pulmonary Arteries in Pulmonary Hypertension Developing after Chemotherapy for Malignancy Tue, 27 Jan 2015 08:50:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/230846/ A few reports have provided histopathological insight into pulmonary hypertension developing after antitumor chemotherapy. In general, plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy is a commonly observed finding in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. We herein report a novel pathological finding that may characterize the histopathological change occurring in patients with pulmonary hypertension after chemotherapy for malignancy. Lung biopsy or autopsy was performed in 7 patients with pulmonary hypertension that developed during or after chemotherapy between 2006 and 2013 to examine the pulmonary vascular changes or to determine the cause of death. Pathological findings included in situ thrombosis in the small pulmonary arteries in 4 of 7 patients. In 2 of 4 patients, pulmonary hypertension was controlled by anticoagulants and antithrombotic agents. One patient who had organized thrombi attained spontaneous remission with oxygen therapy. The other patient died of sudden cardiopulmonary arrest during chemotherapy. Autopsy showed complete occlusion of the peripheral small pulmonary arteries and veins by thrombi. These results demonstrate that in situ thrombosis in the small pulmonary arteries could cause pulmonary hypertension after chemotherapy. Kay Maeda, Yoshikatsu Saiki, and Shigeo Yamaki Copyright © 2015 Kay Maeda et al. All rights reserved. Surgical and Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Tue, 30 Dec 2014 00:10:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2014/757016/ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most extensively studied and researched disease in pulmonology and a cause of significant morbidity, mortality, and financial burden on patient’s family and country’s economy. Its management continues to be a challenge to both the physician and the patient’s family. So far, it is preventable and treatable but not curable. Emphysema, a phenotype of COPD, is the most debilitating condition associated with progressive exercise intolerance and severe dyspnea. Despite decades of research, medical treatments available so far have helped improve quality of life and slowed down the decline in respiratory function but did not significantly improve the survival benefits. Though surgical lung volume reduction (LVR) procedures have shown some promise in context to functional gains and survival but, only in a carefully selected group of patients, bronchoscopic LVR procedures are yet to explore their full potential and limitations. This paper retrospectively studied the developments so far, medical and surgical, with special emphasis on the bronchoscopic procedures of lung volume reduction, and tried to comparatively analyze the risks and benefits of each one of them through various trials and studies done to date. Manoj Meena, Ramakant Dixit, Mrityunjaya Singh, Jai Kumar Samaria, and Surendra Kumar Copyright © 2014 Manoj Meena et al. All rights reserved. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children with Mitochondrial Disease Tue, 23 Dec 2014 06:10:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2014/467576/ A retrospective chart review study was performed to determine the presence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children with primary mitochondrial disease (MD). The symptoms, sleep-related breathing, and movement abnormalities are described for 18 subjects (ages 1.5 to 18 years, 61% male) with MD who underwent polysomnography in our pediatric sleep center from 2007 to 2012. Of the 18 subjects with MD, the common indications for polysomnography were excessive somnolence or fatigue (61%, = 11), snoring (44%, = 8), and sleep movement complaints (17%, = 3). Polysomnographic measurements showed SDB in 56% ( = 10) (obstructive sleep apnea in 60% ( = 6), hypoxemia in 40% ( = 4), and sleep hypoventilation in 20% ( = 2)). There was a significant association between decreased muscle tone and SDB (: 0.043) as well as obese and overweight status with SDB (). SDB is common in subjects with MD. Early detection of SDB, utilizing polysomnography, should be considered to assist in identification of MD patients who may benefit from sleep-related interventions. Ricardo A. Mosquera, Mary Kay Koenig, Rahmat B. Adejumo, Justyna Chevallier, S. Shahrukh Hashmi, Sarah E. Mitchell, Susan E. Pacheco, and Cindy Jon Copyright © 2014 Ricardo A. Mosquera et al. All rights reserved. Accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for Identifying Depression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Thu, 04 Dec 2014 09:00:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2014/973858/ Psychological morbidity is common in chronic respiratory diseases. The diagnostic accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and risk factors for comorbid depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are addressed. Consecutive COPD patients (GOLD stage I–IV, 40–75 years old) were enrolled in a multicentre, cross-sectional cohort study. Diagnosis of depression was ascertained through clinical records. Lung function, HADS score, 6-minute walking test (6-MWT), MRC dyspnoea score, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) were evaluated. Two hundred fifty-nine COPD patients (mean age 62.5 years; 32% female; mean FEV1 48% predicted) were included. Patients diagnosed with depression (29/259; 11.2%) had significantly higher HADS-D and HADS-Total scores than nondepressed patients (median (quartiles) HADS-D 6 [4; 9] versus 4 [2; 7], median HADS-Total 14 [10; 20] versus 8 [5; 14]). Receiver-operating characteristic plots showed moderate accuracy for HADS-D, AUC 0.662 (95%CI 0.601–0.719), and HADS-Total, AUC 0.681 (95%CI 0.620–0.737), with optimal cut-off scores of >5 and >9, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 62.1% and 62.6% for HADS-D compared to 75.9% and 55.2% for HADS-Total. Age, comorbidities, sex, and lower airflow limitation predicted depression. The HADS exhibits low diagnostic accuracy for depression in COPD patients. Younger men with comorbidities are at increased risk for depression. Christoph Nowak, Noriane A. Sievi, Christian F. Clarenbach, Esther Irene Schwarz, Christian Schlatzer, Thomas Brack, Martin Brutsche, Martin Frey, Sarosh Irani, Jörg D. Leuppi, Jochen Rüdiger, Robert Thurnheer, and Malcolm Kohler Copyright © 2014 Christoph Nowak et al. All rights reserved.