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PPAR Research
Volume 2008, Article ID 431763, 12 pages
Review Article

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor- 𝜸 Ligands: Potential Pharmacological Agents for Targeting the Angiogenesis Signaling Cascade in Cancer

1Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografou, 15771 Athens, Greece

Received 17 January 2008; Accepted 25 March 2008

Academic Editor: Dipak Panigrahy

Copyright © 2008 Costas Giaginis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- 𝛾 (PPAR- 𝛾 ) has currently been considered as molecular target for the treatment of human metabolic disorders. Experimental data from in vitro cultures, animal models, and clinical trials have shown that PPAR- 𝛾 ligand activation regulates differentiation and induces cell growth arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer types. Tumor angiogenesis constitutes a multifaceted process implicated in complex downstream signaling pathways that triggers tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this aspect, accumulating in vitro and in vivo studies have provided extensive evidence that PPAR- 𝛾 ligands can function as modulators of the angiogenic signaling cascade. In the current review, the crucial role of PPAR- 𝛾 ligands and the underlying mechanisms participating in tumor angiogenesis are summarized. Targeting PPAR- 𝛾 may prove to be a potential therapeutic strategy in combined treatments with conventional chemotherapy; however, special attention should be taken as there is also substantial evidence to support that PPAR- 𝛾 ligands can enhance angiogenic phenotype in tumoral cells.