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PPAR Research
Volume 2008, Article ID 547470, 4 pages
Review Article

PPAR- 𝛾 Thiazolidinedione Agonists and Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Brain Tumors

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2Department of Anesthesiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
3Division of Neurosurgery, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY 10029, USA
4Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA

Received 18 March 2008; Accepted 19 April 2008

Academic Editor: Dipak Panigrahy

Copyright © 2008 Terry Lichtor et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are selective agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, a transcription factor belonging to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. Although activation of PPAR 𝛾 by TZDs has been best characterized by its ability to regulate expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism, PPAR 𝛾 agonists have other physiological effects including modulating pro- and anti-inflammatory gene expression and inducing apoptosis in several cell types including glioma cells and cell lines. Immunotherapeutic approaches to reducing brain tumors are focused on means to reduce the immunosuppressive responses of tumors which dampen the ability of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to kill tumors. Initial studies from our lab show that combination of an immunotherapeutic strategy with TZD treatment provides synergistic benefit in animals with implanted tumors. The potential of this combined approach for treatment of brain tumors is reviewed in this report.