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PPAR Research
Volume 2008, Article ID 762398, 10 pages
Review Article

A Novel Mechanism of PPAR 𝛾 Regulation of TGF 𝛽 1 : Implication in Cancer Biology

1Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, South Korea
2Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, South Korea
3Innovative Drug Research Center for Metabolic and Inflammatory Disease, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, South Korea

Received 20 February 2008; Revised 28 April 2008; Accepted 9 June 2008

Academic Editor: Dipak Panigrahy

Copyright © 2008 Chang Ho Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- 𝛾 (PPAR 𝛾 ) and retinoic acid X-receptor (RXR) heterodimer, which regulates cell growth and differentiation, represses the TGF 𝛽 1 gene that encodes for the protein involved in cancer biology. This review will introduce the novel mechanism associated with the inhibition of the TGF 𝛽 1 gene by PPAR 𝛾 activation, which regulates the dephosphorylation of Zf9 transcription factor. Pharmacological manipulation of TGF 𝛽 1 by PPAR 𝛾 activators can be applied for treating TGF 𝛽 1-induced pathophysiologic disorders such as cancer metastasis and fibrosis. In this article, we will discuss the opposing effects of TGF 𝛽 on tumor growth and metastasis, and address the signaling pathways regulated by PPAR 𝛾 for tumor progression and suppression.