PPAR Research / 2010 / Article / Fig 3

Review Article

PPAR in Obesity: Sex Difference and Estrogen Involvement

Figure 3

The signaling pathways of and estrogen receptors. (a) After activation by its respective ligands, PPARα heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor and binds to direct repeat PPRE in the promoters of target genes to drive expression of target genes. (b) Estrogen-bound estrogen receptors recognize palindromic ERE to directly bind this DNA and ultimately increase gene expression. RXR: retinoid X receptor; PPRE: PPAR response element; ERE: estrogen response element; ERs: estrogen receptors.

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