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PPAR Research
Volume 2010, Article ID 876049, 12 pages
Review Article

Therapeutic Implications of PPAR in Cardiovascular Diseases

1Department of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
2Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Received 27 April 2010; Accepted 13 July 2010

Academic Editor: Antonio Brunetti

Copyright © 2010 Hiroshi Hasegawa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR ) is the members of the nuclear receptor superfamily as a master transcriptional factor that promotes differentiation of preadipocytes by activating adipose-specific gene expression. Although PPAR is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue and associated with adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis, PPAR is also present in a variety of cell types including vascular cells and cardiomyocytes. Activation of PPAR suppresses production of inflammatory cytokines, and there is accumulating data that PPAR ligands exert antihypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiproliferative effects on vascular wall cells and cardiomyocytes. In addition, activation of PPAR is implicated in the regulation of endothelial function, proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells, and activation of macrophages. Many studies suggest that PPAR ligands not only ameliorate insulin sensitivity, but also have pleiotropic effects on the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, ischemic heart, and myocarditis.