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PPAR Research
Volume 2011, Article ID 840194, 8 pages
Research Article

Involvement of the Retinoid X Receptor Ligand in the Anti-Inflammatory Effect Induced by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor 𝜸 Agonist In Vivo

Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tsushima-naka 1-1-1, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan

Received 12 July 2011; Accepted 13 September 2011

Academic Editor: J. K. Reddy

Copyright © 2011 Atsuki Yamamoto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) forms a heterodimeric DNA-binding complex with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). It has been reported that the effect of the PPAR agonist is reduced in hepatocyte RXR-deficient mice. Therefore, it is suggested that the endogenous RXR ligand is involved in the PPARγ agonist-induced anti-inflammatory effect. However, the participation of the RXR ligand in the PPARγ-induced anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. Here, we investigated the influence of RXR antagonist on the anti-inflammatory effect of PPARγ agonist pioglitazone in carrageenan test. In addition, we also examined the influence of PPAR antagonist on the anti-inflammatory effect induced by RXR agonist NEt-3IP. The RXR antagonist suppressed the antiedema effect of PPARγ agonist. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of RXR agonist was suppressed by PPARγ antagonist. PPARγ agonist-induced anti-inflammatory effects were reversed by the RXR antagonist. Thus, we showed that the endogenous RXR ligand might contribute to the PPARγ agonist-induced anti-inflammatory effect.