PPAR Research / 2012 / Article / Fig 3

Review Article

Misregulation of PPAR Functioning and Its Pathogenic Consequences Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Human Obesity

Figure 3

Interrelationships between the level of oxidative stress and PPAR-α downregulation in the progression of steatosis to steatohepatitis associated with obesity involving NF-κB (A) and AP-1 (B) signaling. Abbreviations: AP-1: activating protein-1 (c-Jun-cFos; c-Jun-OP, phosphorylated c-Jun); IκB: inhibitor of κB (IκB-OP, phosphorylated IκB); IKK: IκB kinase; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; LCPUFA, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid; NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB (p65-p50); PPAR-α: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. Solid arrows indicate enhanced contribution, whereas broken arrows indicate reduced contribution.