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PPAR Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 616371, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/616371
Review Article

PPARs in Regulation of Paraoxonases: Control of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Pathways

Centre de Recerca Biomèdica, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan, Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201 Reus, Spain

Received 26 July 2011; Accepted 17 October 2011

Academic Editor: J. Reddy

Copyright © 2012 Jordi Camps et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The paraoxonase (PON) group of enzymes, composed of PON1, PON2, and PON3, play an important role in decreasing oxidative stress by degrading lipid peroxides. PON1 synthesis is upregulated by PPAR. Several pharmacological compounds (acting as antioxidants and, hence, atheroprotective) stimulate both PPAR activity and PON1 expression. Recent evidence suggests that PON1 and the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) are involved in coordinating the inflammatory response in damaged tissues; PPAR may be central in the regulation of these biochemical pathways. This article reviews the state of knowledge on PON1 biochemistry and function, the influence of genetic variation, and the regulation of PON1 expression by pharmaceutical compounds that increase PPAR activity. We also describe recent lines of evidence suggesting links between PON1 and MCP-1 and how their production may be regulated by PPAR.