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PPAR Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 929052, 9 pages
Research Article

The PPAR Gamma Agonist Troglitazone Regulates Erk 1/2 Phosphorylation via a PPARγ-Independent, MEK-Dependent Pathway in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

1Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
2Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, New York University College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York City, NY 10010, USA

Received 1 September 2011; Revised 22 November 2011; Accepted 23 November 2011

Academic Editor: R. P. Phipps

Copyright © 2012 Adrienne Bolden et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) dramatically reduce the growth of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. To determine whether the antitumor effects of TZDs were due in part to changes in the MEK/Erk signaling pathway, we examined the regulation of Erk phosphorylation by the TZD troglitazone within the PC-3 and C4-2 human prostate cancer cell lines. Western blot analysis revealed troglitazone-induced phosphorylation of Erk in both PC-3 and C4-2 cells. Troglitazone-induced increases in Erk phosphorylation were suppressed by the MEK inhibitor U0126 but not by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Pretreatment with U0126 did not alter the ability of troglitazone to regulate expression of two proteins that control cell cycle, p21, and c-Myc. Troglitazone was also still effective at reducing PC-3 proliferation in the presence of U0126. Therefore, our data suggest that troglitazone-induced Erk phosphorylation does not significantly contribute to the antiproliferative effect of troglitazone.