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PPAR Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 978687, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/978687
Review Article

Idealized PPAR 𝜸 -Based Therapies: Lessons from Bench and Bedside

Laboratório de Farmacologia Molecular, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade de Brasília, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Brasília, CEP 70910-900, Brazil

Received 6 February 2012; Accepted 23 April 2012

Academic Editor: Christopher J. Nicol

Copyright © 2012 Angélica Amorim Amato and Francisco de Assis Rocha Neves. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The incidence of type 2 (T2D) diabetes and other chronic conditions associated with insulin resistance is increasing at an alarming rate, underscoring the need for effective and safe therapeutic strategies. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has emerged as a critical regulator of glucose homeostasis, lipid homeostasis, and vascular inflammation. Currently marketed drugs targeting this receptor, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs), have proven benefits on insulin resistance and hyperglycemia associated with T2D. Unfortunately, they have been associated with long-term unfavorable effects on health, such as weight gain, plasma volume expansion, bone loss, cardiovascular toxicity, and possibly cancer, and these safety concerns have led to reduced interest for many PPARγ ligands. However, over the last years, data from human genetic studies, animal models, and studies with ligands have increased our understanding of PPARγ’s actions and provided important insights into how ligand development strategies could be optimized to increase effectiveness and safety of PPARγ-based therapies.