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PPAR Research
Volume 2013, Article ID 613864, 23 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/613864
Review Article

Nuclear Control of the Inflammatory Response in Mammals by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

1Centre de Recherche INSERM-UMR866 “Lipides, Nutrition, Cancer” Faculté de Médecine, Université de Bourgogne 7, Boulevard Jeanne d’Arc, 21079 Dijon Cedex, France
2Laboratoire CarMeN, UMR INSERM U1060/INRA 1235, Université Lyon 1, Faculté de Médecine Lyon Sud, 165 Chemin du Grand Revoyet, 69921 Oullins, France
3Department of Chemical Physiology, The Scripps Research Institute, MB-24, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA

Received 15 October 2012; Revised 14 January 2013; Accepted 29 January 2013

Academic Editor: Massimo Bionaz

Copyright © 2013 Stéphane Mandard and David Patsouris. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that play pivotal roles in the regulation of a very large number of biological processes including inflammation. Using specific examples, this paper focuses on the interplay between PPARs and innate immunity/inflammation and, when possible, compares it among species. We focus on recent discoveries establishing how inflammation and PPARs interact in the context of obesity-induced inflammation and type 2 diabetes, mostly in mouse and humans. We illustrate that PPARγ ability to alleviate obesity-associated inflammation raises an interesting pharmacologic potential. In the light of recent findings, the protective role of PPARα and PPARβ/δ against the hepatic inflammatory response is also addressed. While PPARs agonists are well-established agents that can treat numerous inflammatory issues in rodents and humans, surprisingly very little has been described in other species. We therefore also review the implication of PPARs in inflammatory bowel disease; acute-phase response; and central, cardiac, and endothelial inflammation and compare it along different species (mainly mouse, rat, human, and pig). In the light of the data available in the literature, there is no doubt that more studies concerning the impact of PPAR ligands in livestock should be undertaken because it may finally raise unconsidered health and sanitary benefits.