Table 1: Tissue distribution of the various PPARs in different species.

SpecieTissueExpression

PPARα (NR1C1)

Liver++ [237]
WATN.D.
Cow/cattleGI tractN.D.
BrainN.D.
Spleen/thymus N.D.

Liver++ [23]
ChickenWAT+ [82]
Brain++ [82]
Spleen + [82]

Liver+++ [20, 61, 118, 162, 175]
Primary hepatocytes ± to +++ [61, 134]
HepG2 hepatoma cells + [54]
HepaRG hepatoma cells++ [134]
HumanWAT+ [20, 118, 238]
Isolated adipocytes± [20]
GI tract++ [20, 118, 175, 239]
Brain + [118, 175, 240]
Monocytes+ [241, 242]
Dendritic cells++ [241, 242]
Kidney++ [20, 118]
Heart +++ [118]

PigLiver± [243]
WAT + [243]

Liver+++ [61, 83, 244247]
Hepatocytes++ [61]
GI tract++ Nursa [175]
Mouse/ratBrain+ Nursa
Spleen/thymus− [83]
Macrophages (BMDM) − [244]
FAO hepatoma cells ++ [54]
WAT+ [62, 248]

PPAR / (NR1C2)

LiverN.D.
WATN.D.
Cow/cattleGI tractN.D.
BrainN.D.
Spleen/thymus N.D.

LiverN.D.
WATN.D.
ChickenGI tractN.D.
BrainN.D.
Spleen/thymus N.D.

Liver± [20]
HepG2 hepatoma cells ++ [54]
WAT± [20]
Isolated adipocytes± [20]
Large intestine+++ [20]
Small intestine+ [20]
HumanColon mucosae (adult)++ [239]
BrainN.D.
Monocytes++ [241]
Macrophages+++ [249]
Dendritic cells+ [241]
Kidney+ [20]
Skeletal muscle ± [20]

Liver+ [250]
PigWAT++ [250]
Stomach++ [250]
Brain ++ [250]

Liver± [251]
RabbitGI tract+ [251]
Brain++ [251]
Spleen/thymus ± [251]

Liver+ to ++ Nursa [50, 83, 246, 247]
FAO hepatoma cells++ [54]
WAT+ Nursa [50]
Mouse/ratGI tract +++ Nursa [50, 175]
Brain+++ Nursa [50, 83, 193, 252]
Macrophages (BMDM)++ [244]
Colon++ [83]

PPARγ (NR1C3)

Liver− [253]
WAT+++ [253, 254]
Cow/cattleSpleen/thymus++ [253]
Small intestine± [253]
Mammary gland [235]

Liver− [82]
ChickenSpleen/thymus+ [82]
Brain+ [255]
WAT+++ [255]

Liver+ [20, 256, 257]
HepG2 hepatoma cells+ [54]
HepaRG cells± [134]
Primary hepatocytes± [134]
WAT+++ [20, 54, 256, 257]
HumanIsolated adipocytes+++ [20]
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes+++ [84]
Large intestine+++ [20]
Small intestine ± [20]
BrainN.D.
Monocytes+++ [241]
Dendritic cells+++ [241]
Kidney+ [20]
Skeletal muscle ± [20]

PigLiver− [243]
WAT ++ [243]

Liver− to + [251, 258]
WAT+++ [258]
RabbitGI tract+++ [251]
Brain− [251]
Spleen/thymus ++ [251]

Liver+ to – [Nursa] [83, 246, 247]
Hepatocytes+ [259]
FAO hepatoma cells − [54]
WAT +++ [Nursa] [83, 256, 260]
Mouse/rat3T3-L1 adipocytes+++ [84]
GI tract+ [Nursa] [83]
Brain+ [Nursa] [83, 261, 262]
Spleen/thymus++ [83]
Macrophages (BMDM)+++ [244]

Abbreviations: GI: gastrointestinal; WAT: white adipose tissue; N.D.: not determined. BMDM: bone marrow-derived macrophages.
Symbols: −: absent; ±: barely detectable; +: weak; ++: moderate; +++: high. the citation link for Nursa is http://www.nursa.org/10.1621/datasets.02001.