PPAR-γ Regulates Trophoblast Differentiation in the BeWo Cell Model
Nuclear, not cytoplasmic, PPAR-γ expression changes upon drug treatment. (a) PPAR-γ expression was visualized at 3 (top), 6 (middle), and 24 (bottom) hours following treatment with vehicle, rosiglitazone, or T0070907. PPAR-γ shown in green, e-cadherin (cell surface marker) in red, DAPI (nuclear marker) in blue; 630X magnification. Nuclear (b) and cytoplasmic (c) PPAR-γ protein expression was assessed at 1, 6, and 24 hours of treatment (representative images below). PPAR-γ protein levels were assessed using Western blotting; nuclear expression was normalized to lamin B; cytoplasmic expression normalized to α-tubulin. Each treatment was further normalized to vehicle (set as 1, red dashed line). Values are represented as mean ± SEM; # versus vehicle control; * (). Rosi, rosiglitazone; T007, T0070907.