PPARα: A Master Regulator of Bilirubin Homeostasis
Gemfibrozil increases HO-1, UGT1A1, and MRP2 mRNA levels in human vascular and hepatic cell models. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) (a and b), coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMC) (c and d), and HepG2 cells (g and h) were treated with vehicle (DMSO, 0.1%, v/v) or gemfibrozil (250 μM) for 24 H. Human hepatocytes (HH) from donor 1 (e and f) were treated with vehicle (DMSO, 0.1%, v/v) or gemfibrozil (200 μM) for 24 H. Transcript levels were quantified from total RNA through quantitative RT-PCR analyses and normalized with the housekeeping RNA 28S. Values (mean ± SD) are expressed relatively to control (vehicle) set at 1. Statistically significant differences between vehicle- and gemfibrozil-treated cells are indicated by asterisks (Student’s -test: ; ; n.s: nonsignificant).