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PPAR Research
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 232818, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/232818
Review Article

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Thyroid Autoimmunity

1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Savi 10, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, Endocrinology, University of Messina, Viale Gazzi, Padiglione H, 4 Piano, 98125 Messina, Italy

Received 25 October 2014; Revised 24 December 2014; Accepted 7 January 2015

Academic Editor: Richard P. Phipps

Copyright © 2015 Silvia Martina Ferrari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves’ disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO), such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-γ agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-γ agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders.