Figure 2: Effect of PPAR activation during cardiac dysfunction. Administration of PPAR agonists has generally been found to have beneficial effects on cardiac function during ischemia (with reperfusion), pressure overload induced hypertrophy, and sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. However, the role of PPARα activation in ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is unclear as both beneficial and detrimental effects have been reported. Figures were produced using Servier Medical Art (http://www.servier.com).