Table 2: FAs and their derivatives as PPARs ligands.

ReceptorPPARαPPARβ/δPPARγ

LigandsSaturated FAs (weaker)Unsaturated FAsUnsaturated FAs (LA, LNA, CLA, DHA, EPA)
Unsaturated FAs (LA, LNA, PUFAs, including AA, EPA, phytanic acid)Saturated FAs (much weaker)
Prostacyclin
15-d-PGJ2
15-HETE
Leukotriene B44-HNE9-HODE
8-HETE4-HDDE13-HODE
8,9-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids
11,12-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids
OEA
PEA

AA, arachidonic acid; CLA, conjugated linoleic acid; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; 15-d-PGJ2, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14 prostaglandin J2; LA, linoleic acid; LNA, α-linolenic acid; OEA, oleoylethanolamide; PEA, palmitoylethanolamide; 4-HDDE, 4-hydroxydodeca-(2E,6Z)-dienal; 4-HNE, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; 15-HETE, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; HODE, hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid.