Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
PPAR Research
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7175067, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7175067
Research Article

Pioglitazone Effect on Glioma Stem Cell Lines: Really a Promising Drug Therapy for Glioblastoma?

1School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cadore 48, 20900 Monza, Italy
2Ph.D. Program in Neuroscience, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cadore 48, 20900 Monza, Italy
3NeuroMI, Milan Center of Neuroscience, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, San Gerardo Hospital, Via Pergolesi 33, 20052 Monza, Italy

Received 24 March 2016; Accepted 5 May 2016

Academic Editor: Elisabetta Mueller

Copyright © 2016 Chiara Cilibrasi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler et al., “The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 97–109, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Stupp and M. E. Hegi, “Targeting brain-tumor stem cells,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 193–194, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. K. Singh, C. Hawkins, I. D. Clarke et al., “Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells,” Nature, vol. 432, no. 7015, pp. 396–401, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. D. Rosen and B. M. Spiegelman, “PPARγ: a nuclear regulator of metabolism, differentiation, and cell growth,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 276, no. 41, pp. 37731–37734, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Eeckhoute, F. Oger, B. Staels, and P. Lefebvre, “Coordinated regulation of PPARγ expression and activity through control of chromatin structure in adipogenesis and obesity,” PPAR Research, vol. 2012, Article ID 164140, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. R. Batistuzzo de Medeiros, G. Krey, A. K. Hihi, and W. Wahli, “Functional interactions between the estrogen receptor and the transcriptional activator Sp1 regulate the estrogen-dependent transcriptional activity of the vitellogenin A1 io promoter,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 29, pp. 18250–18260, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. B. M. Forman, P. Tontonoz, J. Chen, R. P. Brun, B. M. Spiegelman, and R. M. Evans, “15-deoxy-Δ12, 14-prostaglandin J2 is a ligand for the adipocyte determination factor PPARγ,” Cell, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 803–812, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. M. Willson, P. J. Brown, D. D. Sternbach, and B. R. Henke, “The PPARs: from orphan receptors to drug discovery,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 527–550, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Yki-Järvinen, “Thiazolidinediones,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 11, pp. 1106–1118, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. E. Theocharis, A. Margeli, and G. Kouraklis, “Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma ligands as potent antineoplastic agents,” Current Medicinal Chemistry—Anti-Cancer Agents, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 239–251, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. N. Strakova, J. Ehrmann, P. Dzubak, J. Bouchal, and Z. Kolar, “The synthetic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ciglitazone affects human glioblastoma cell lines,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 309, no. 3, pp. 1239–1247, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Grommes, G. E. Landreth, M. Sastre et al., “Inhibition of in vivo glioma growth and invasion by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist treatment,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 1524–1533, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. W. Chearwae and J. J. Bright, “PPARγ agonists inhibit growth and expansion of CD133+ brain tumour stem cells,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 99, no. 12, pp. 2044–2053, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. Grommes, D. S. Conway, A. Alshekhlee, and J. S. Barnholtz-Sloan, “Inverse association of PPARγ agonists use and high grade glioma development,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 233–239, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. N. Reguart, B. He, M. Taron, L. You, D. M. Jablons, and R. Rosell, “The role of Wnt signaling in cancer and stem cells,” Future Oncology, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 787–797, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Natsume, S. Kinjo, K. Yuki et al., “Glioma-initiating cells and molecular pathology: implications for therapy,” Brain Tumor Pathology, vol. 28, no. 1, 12 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Z. Wan, W. Shi, B. Shao et al., “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone inhibits β-catenin-mediated glioma cell growth and invasion,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 349, no. 1-2, pp. 1–10, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. M. Pollard, K. Yoshikawa, I. D. Clarke et al., “Glioma stem cell lines expanded in adherent culture have tumor-specific phenotypes and are suitable for chemical and genetic screens,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 568–580, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Griffero, A. Daga, D. Marubbi et al., “Different response of human glioma tumor-initiating cells to epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 284, no. 11, pp. 7138–7148, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Baronchelli, A. Bentivegna, S. Redaelli et al., “Delineating the cytogenomic and epigenomic landscapes of glioma stem cell lines,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, Article ID e57462, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. Riva, S. Baronchelli, L. Paoletta et al., “In vitro anticancer drug test: a new method emerges from the model of glioma stem cells,” Toxicology Reports, vol. 1, pp. 188–199, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. N. Ignatova, V. G. Kukekov, E. D. Laywell, O. N. Suslov, F. D. Vrionis, and D. A. Steindler, “Human cortical glial tumors contain neural stem-like cells expressing astroglial and neuronal markers in vitro,” Glia, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 193–206, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Riva, V. Butta, C. Cilibrasi et al., “Epigenetic targeting of glioma stem cells: short-term and long-term treatments with valproic acid modulate DNA methylation and differentiation behavior, but not temozolomide sensitivity,” Oncology Reports, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 2811–2824, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. H. Joshi, T. Pal, and C. Ramaa, “A new dawn for the use of thiazolidinediones in cancer therapy,” Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 501–510, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Fröhlich and R. Wahl, “Chemotherapy and chemoprevention by thiazolidinediones,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 845340, 14 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Im, “Targeting glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligands,” IUBMB Life, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 173–177, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. H. P. Ellis and K. M. Kurian, “Biological rationale for the use of PPARγ agonists in glioblastoma,” Frontiers in Oncology, vol. 4, article 52, Article ID Article 52, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. T. Heneka and G. E. Landreth, “PPARs in the brain,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, vol. 1771, no. 8, pp. 1031–1045, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. G. W. Verhaak, K. A. Hoadley, E. Purdom et al., “Integrated genomic analysis identifies clinically relevant subtypes of glioblastoma characterized by abnormalities in PDGFRA, IDH1, EGFR, and NF1,” Cancer Cell, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 98–110, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. R. Parker, A. L. Hudson, P. Khong et al., “Intratumoral heterogeneity identified at the epigenetic, genetic and transcriptional level in glioblastoma,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, article 22477, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. C. Zang, M. Wächter, H. Liu et al., “Ligands for PPARγ and RAR cause induction of growth inhibition and apoptosis in human glioblastomas,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 107–118, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. Pestereva, S. Kanakasabai, and J. J. Bright, “PPARγ agonists regulate the expression of stemness and differentiation genes in brain tumour stem cells,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 106, no. 10, pp. 1702–1712, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Morosetti, T. Servidei, M. Mirabella et al., “The PPARgamma ligands PGJ2 and rosiglitazone show a differential ability to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis and differentiation of human glioblastoma cell lines,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 493–502, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Kanakasabai, E. Pestereva, W. Chearwae, S. K. Gupta, S. Ansari, and J. J. Bright, “Pparγ agonists promote oligodendrocyte differentiation of neural stem cells by modulating stemness and differentiation genes,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 11, Article ID e50500, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. C. Rennert, A. S. Achrol, M. Januszyk et al., “Multiple subsets of brain tumor initiating cells co-exist in glioblastoma,” STEM CELLS, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. K. S. Kierulf-Vieira, C. J. Sandberg, Z. Grieg, C. C. Günther, I. A. Langmoen, and E. O. Vik-Mo, “Wnt inhibition is dysregulated in gliomas and its re-establishment inhibits proliferation and tumor sphere formation,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 340, no. 1, pp. 53–61, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. D. Lu and D. A. Carson, “Repression of β-catenin signaling by PPARγ ligands,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 636, no. 1–3, pp. 198–202, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. F. Guo, X. Ren, Y. Dong et al., “Constitutive expression of PPARγ inhibits proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells and down-regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway downstream target genes TERT and ENAH,” Gene, vol. 584, no. 1, pp. 31–37, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar