Pathology Research International / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

A Morphological Approach to the Diagnosis of Protozoal Infections of the Central Nervous System

Table 1

Protozoal infections that may affect the central nervous system.

Amoebiasis
 Cerebral abscess
  Entamoeba histolytica
 Primary amoebic encephalitis (free living amoebae)
   (a) Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis
   Naegleria fowleri
   (b) Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis
   Acanthamoeba spp.
   Balamuthia mandrillaris
   Leptomixed amoebas
   Sappinia diploidea
Cerebral malaria
 Plasmodium falciparum
Toxoplasmosis
 Toxoplasma gondii
Trypanosomiasis
 African trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness)
  Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
  Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
 South American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease)
  Trypanosoma cruzi.
Microsporidiosis
 Encephalitozoon spp
Leishmaniasis
 Leishmania spp

Note that cerebral leishmaniasis is exceedingly rare, and microsporidial infections have become apparent as significant human CNS diseases only in the last decades.