Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Pathology Research International
Volume 2011, Article ID 420198, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/420198
Research Article

Amelioratory Effect of Nanoconjugated Vancomycin on Spleen during VRSA-Induced Oxidative Stress

1Immunology and Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, West Bengal, Midnapore 721 102, India
2Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, Kharagpur 721 302, India

Received 25 February 2011; Revised 27 April 2011; Accepted 10 May 2011

Academic Editor: Youhua Liu

Copyright © 2011 Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Kluytmans, A. Van Belkum, and H. Verbrugh, “Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and associated risks,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 505–520, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. M. M. Kirby, “Extraction of a highly potent penicillin inactivator from penicillin resistant staphylococci,” Science, vol. 99, no. 2579, pp. 452–453, 1944. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. C. Neu, “The crisis in antibiotic resistance,” Science, vol. 257, no. 5073, pp. 1064–1073, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. M. Livermore, “Antibiotic resistance in staphylococci,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. S3–S10, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosenbrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall, “Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent,” The Journal of biological chemistry, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 265–275, 1951. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. M. Sievert, M. L. Boulton, G. Stoltman, D. Johnson, M. G. Stobierski, and F. P. Downes, “Staphylococcus aureus resistant to vancomycin—United States, 2002,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 51, pp. 565–567, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  7. S. P. Chakraborty, S. K. KarMahapatra, M. Bal, and S. Roy, “Isolation and identification of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from post operative pus sample,” Alameen Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 52–68, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  8. E. Brouillette, G. Grondin, L. Shkreta, P. Lacasse, and B. G. Talbot, “In vivo and in vitro demonstration that Staphylococcus aureus is an intracellular pathogen in the presence or absence of fibronectin-binding proteins,” Microbial Pathogenesis, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 159–168, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Steigbigel, L. H. Lambert, and J. S. Remington, “Phagocytic and bactericidal properties of normal human monocytes,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 131–142, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Dryla, D. Gelbmann, V. A. Gabain, and E. Nagy, “Identification of a noveliron regulated Staphylococcal surface protein with haptogloinhemoglobinbinding activity,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 49, pp. 37–53, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  11. E. Khor and L. Y. Lim, “Implantable applications of chitin and chitosan,” Biomaterials, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 2339–2349, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. S. Koide, “Chitin-chitosan: properties, benefits and risks,” Nutrition Research, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1091–1101, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. X. F. Liu, Y. L. Guan, D. Z. Yang, Z. Li, and K. D. Yao, “Antibacterial action of chitosan and carboxymethylated chitosan,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 79, no. 7, pp. 1324–1335, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. P. Chakraborty, S. K. Sahu, S. K. KarMahapatra et al., “Nanoconjugated vancomycin: new opportunities for the development of anti-VRSA agents,” Nanotechnology, vol. 21, no. 10, Article ID 105103, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. S. P. Chakraborty, S. K. KarMahapatra, S. K. Sahu, P. Pramanik, and S. Roy, “Antioxidative effect of folate-modified chitosan nanoparticles,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 29–38, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  16. S. P. Chakraborty, S. K. KarMahapatra, S. K. Sahu, S. Chattopadhyay, P. Pramanik, and S. Roy, “Nitric oxide mediated Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis and protective role of nanoconjugated vancomycin,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 105–112, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  17. D. G. Hattie, H. L. Jon, E. C. Tony, S. W. Bridget, L. C. Ambrose, and P. L. Frederik, “Survival of Staphylococcus aureus inside neutrophils contributes to infection,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 164, no. 7, pp. 3713–3722, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Chandran and P. M. Venugopal, “Modulatory effects of curcumin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status during nicotine-induced toxicity,” Polish Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 581–586, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. O. Iranloye and A. F. Bolarinwa, “Effect of nicotine administration on weight and histology of some vital visceral organs in female albino rats,” Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. K. KarMahapatra, S. P. Chakraborty, S. Das, and S. Roy, “Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 222–230, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. E. Perandones, V. A. Illera, D. Peckham, L. L. Stunz, and R. F. Ashman, “Regulation of apoptosis in vitro in mature murine spleen T cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 151, no. 7, pp. 3521–3529, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall, “Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent,” The Journal of biological chemistry, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 265–275, 1951. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. P. Lee and C. Y. Cheng, “Nitric oxide and cyclic nucleotides: their roles in junction dynamics and spermatogenesis,” Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 25–32, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  24. W. Li, R. Tsubouchi, S. Qiao, M. Haneda, K. Murakami, and M. Yoshino, “Inhibitory action of eugenol compounds on the production of nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 macrophages,” Biomedical Research, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  25. G. W. Sullivan, I. J. Sarembock, and J. Linden, “The role of inflammation in vascular diseases,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 591–602, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Ogata, M. Hoshi, S. Urano, and T. Endo, “Antioxidant activity of eugenol and related monomeric and dimeric compounds,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1467–1469, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Bagchi, D. Bagchi, E. Adickes, and S. J. Stohs, “Chronic effects of smokeless tobacco extract on rat liver histopathology and production of HSP-90,” Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 61–68, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Z. Reznick and L. Packer, “Oxidative damage to proteins: spectrophotometric method for carbonyl assay,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 233, pp. 357–363, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Gerster, “β-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C in different stages of experimental carcinogenesis,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 155–168, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Sarkar, P. Yadav, R. Trivedi, A. K. Bansal, and D. Bhatnagar, “Cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation and the status of the antioxidant system in rat tissues,” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 144–149, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  31. G. J. Wetscher, M. Bagchi, D. Bagchi et al., “Free radical production in nicotine treated pancreatic tissue,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 877–882, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. Ashakumari and P. L. Vijayammal, “Addictive effect of alcohol and nicotine on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense mechanism in rats,” Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 16, pp. 305–308, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  33. S. M. Somani, “Exercise, drugs and tissue specific antioxidant system,” in Pharmacology in Exercise and Sports, S. M. Somani, Ed., pp. 57–95, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  34. T. Hemachand, B. Gopalakrishnan, D. M. Salunke, S. M. Totey, and C. Shaha, “Sperm plasma-membrane-associated glutathione S-transferases as gamete recognition molecules,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 115, no. 10, pp. 2053–2065, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus