Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Pathology Research International
Volume 2011, Article ID 547618, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/547618
Research Article

The Spectrum of Clinical and Pathological Manifestations of AIDS in a Consecutive Series of 236 Autopsied Cases in Mumbai, India

Sir J. J. Hospital and Grant Medical College, Byculla, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400008, India

Received 29 November 2010; Accepted 14 March 2011

Academic Editor: Liron Pantanowitz

Copyright © 2011 Dhaneshwar Namdeorao Lanjewar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. D. Lele, S. J. Parekh, and N. H. Wadia, “Transfusion-associated AIDS(TA-AIDS) and AIDS dementia,” The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 549–553, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. National AIDS Control Organization, (NACO) Ministry of Health, Government of India, New Delhi, “HIV sentinel surveillance and HIV estimation in India, 2006, technical brief,” http://www.nacoonline.org/NACO/Quick_Links_/HIVData.
  3. Mumbai District AIDS Control Society, “HIV scenario in Mumbai,” http://dev.ikf.in.
  4. S. Bijur, L. Menon, E. Iyer et al., “Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients in Bombay: diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage cytology and transbronchial lung biopsy,” The Indian Journal of Chest Diseases & Allied Sciences, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 227–233, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. K. Hira, H. L. Dupont, D. N. Lanjewar, and Y. N. Dholakia, “Severe weight loss: the predominant clinical presentation of tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection in India,” National Medical Journal of India, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 256–258, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. V. K. Arora and S. V. Kumar, “Pattern of opportunistic pulmonary infections in HIV sero-positive subjects: observations from Pondicherry, India,” The Indian Journal of Chest Diseases & Allied Sciences, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 135–144, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. N. Lanjewar and R. Duggal, “Pulmonary pathology in patients with AIDS: an autopsy study from Mumbai,” HIV Medicine, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 266–271, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. H. J. Shroff, D. R. Dashatwar, R. P. Deshpande, and H. R. Waigmann, “AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in an Indian female,” The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 241–242, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  9. V. Santosh, S. K. Shankar, S. Das et al., “Pathological lesions in HIV positive patients,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 101, pp. 134–141, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. N. Amarapurkar, K. B. Chopra, A. Y. Phadke, S. Sahni, S. R. Prabhu, and R. H. Kalro, “Tuberculous abscess of the liver associated with HIV infection,” Indian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 21–22, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. N. Lanjewar, B. S. Anand, R. Genta et al., “Major differences in the spectrum of gastrointestinal infections associated with AIDS in India versus the West: an autopsy study,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 482–485, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. M. Rathi, D. N. Amarapurkar, N. E. Borges, G. V. Koppikar, and R. H. Kalro, “Spectrum of liver diseases in HIV infection,” Indian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 94–95, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. N. Lanjewar, P. P. Jain, and C. R. Shetty, “Profile of central nervous system pathology in patients with AIDS: an autopsy study from India,” AIDS, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 309–313, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. N. Lanjewar, K. V. Surve, M. B. Maheshwari, B. P. Shenoy, and S. K. Hira, “Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 147–151, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. N. Lanjewar, G. A. Katdare, P. P. Jain, and S. K. Hira, “Pathology of the heart in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” Indian Heart Journal, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 321–325, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. N. Lanjewar, M. A. Ansari, C. R. Shetty, M. B. Maheshwari, and P. Jain, “Renal lesions associated with AIDS—an autopsy study,” Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 63–68, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Narendra Singh, K. Ranjana, Y. Indiver Singh et al., “Indigenous disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in the state of Manipur, India: report of four autochthonous cases,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 2699–2702, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. N. Lanjewar, A. Bhosale, and A. Iyer, “Spectrum of dermatopathologic lesions associated with HIV/AIDS in India,” Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 293–298, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. H. Ranjana, K. Priyokumar, TH. J. Singh et al., “Disseminated Penicillium marneffecei infection among HIV-infected patients in Manipur state, India,” Journal of Infection, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 268–271, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Chandan, N. Madnani, D. Desai, and R. Deshpande, “AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in a heterosexual male—a case report,” Dermatology Online Journal, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 18–19, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. D. Deshmukh, M. V. Ghaisas, S. R. Rane, and V. M. Bapat, “Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and its association with other opportunistic infections in AIDS—an autopsy report of five cases,” Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 207–211, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Satyanarayana, A. T. Kalghatgi, A. K. Malaviya et al., “Needle necropsy in AIDS,” Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 416–419, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. K. Shankar, P. Satishchandra, A. Mahadevan et al., “Low prevalence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in India and Africa: is there a biological explanation?” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 59–67, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. N. Lanjewar, R. J. Rao, S. B. Kulkarni, and S. K. Hira, “Hepatic pathology in AIDS: a pathological study from Mumbai, India,” HIV Medicine, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 253–257, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. A. D. Amarapurkar and N. A. Sangle, “Histological spectrum of liver in HIV—autopsy study,” Annals of Hepatology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 47–51, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. G. Krishna and G. V. R. Reddy, “Kaposi's sarcoma in a follow-up patient of malignant schwannoma after seroconversion,” Indian Journal of Surgery, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 110–111, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  27. S. K. Shankar, A. Mahadevan, P. Satishchandra et al., “Neuropathology of HIV/AIDS with an overview of the Indian scene,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 468–488, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. V. V. Shenoy, S. R. Joshi, D. Duberkar, K. N. Kadam, R. T. Shedge, and D. N. Lanjewar, “Kaposi's sarcoma with thrombocytopenia in a heterosexual Asian Indian male,” Journal of Association of Physicians of India, vol. 53, pp. 486–487, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  29. T. C. Yasha, B. Anandh, S. G. Srikanth, A. Mahadevan, V. Santosh, and S. K. Shankar, “A 30-year-old male with diffuse white matter lesions,” Neurology India, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 358–360, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. M. Kura, U. N. Khemani, D. N. Lanjewar, S. R. Raghuwanshi, A. R. Chitale, and S. R. Joshi, “Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS,” Journal of Association of Physicians of India, vol. 56, pp. 262–264, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. N. Lanjewar, S. D. Lanjewar, and G. Chavan, “Coexistent lymphoma with tuberculosis and Kaposi's sarcoma with tuberculosis occurring in lymph node in patients with AIDS: a report of two cases,” Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 551–554, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  32. Royal College of Pathologists, HIV and the Practice of Pathology, Royal College of Pathologists, London, UK, 1995.
  33. J. Ludwig, Current Methods of Autopsy Practice, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2nd edition, 1979.
  34. D. Bhugra, “Begging eunuchs of Bombay,” Lancet, vol. 339, no. 8790, p. 432, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. M. CARSTAIRS, “Hinjra and jiryan: two derivatives of Hindu attitudes to sexuality,” The British Journal of Medical Psychology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 128–138, 1956. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Shreedhar, “HIV thrives in ancient traditions,” Harvard AIDS review, pp. 10–11, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. Lakshmi and A. Gururaj Kumar, “HIV seroprevalence among eunuchs,” Genitourinary Medicine, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 71–72, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. N. Nemetz, J. Ludwig, and L. T. Kurland, “Assessing the autopsy,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 362–379, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. G. Scottolini and S. R. Weinstein, “The autopsy in clinical quality control,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 250, no. 9, pp. 1192–1194, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. A. Schwartz and C. J. Herman, “The importance of the autopsy in emerging and reemerging infectious diseases,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 248–254, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. S. Wilkes, A. H. Fortin, J. C. Felix, T. A. Godwin, and W. G. Thompson, “Value of necropsy in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8602, pp. 85–88, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. B. Lucas, “HIV and the necropsy,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 1071–1075, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, “Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia-Los Angeles,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 30, pp. 250–252, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia among homosexual men-New York City and California,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 30, pp. 305–308, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  45. M. S. Gottlieb, R. Schroff, and H. M. Schanker, “Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men. Evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 305, no. 24, pp. 1425–1431, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. Masur, M. A. Michelis, and J. B. Greene, “An outbreak of community-acquired Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Initial manifestation of cellular immune dysfunction,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 305, no. 24, pp. 1431–1438, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. M. Reichert, T. J. O'Leary, and D. L. Levens, “Autopsy pathology in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 357–382, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. B. Moskowitz, P. Kory, and J. C. Chan, “Unusual causes of death in Haitians residing in Miami. High prevalence of opportunistic infections,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 250, no. 9, pp. 1187–1191, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. K. Al’khalaji, H. Rotterdam, C. W. Lerner et al., “Autopsy findings in six patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 48, p. 2A, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  50. K. Welch, W. Finkbeiner, and C. E. Alpers, “Autopsy findings in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 252, no. 9, pp. 1152–1159, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. L. A. Guarda, M. A. Luna, and J. L. Smith, “Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: postmortem findings,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 549–557, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. N. Hui, M. N. Koss, and P. R. Meyer, “Necropsy findings in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a comparison of premortem diagnoses with postmortem findings,” Human Pathology, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 670–676, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. K. Mobley, H. Z. Rotterdam, C. W. Lerner, and M. L. Tapper, “Autopsy findings in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome,” Pathology Annual, vol. 20, pp. 45–65, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. W. Niedt and R. A. Schinella, “Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clinicopathologic study of 56 autopsies,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 109, no. 8, pp. 727–734, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. C. Klatt and D. Shibata, “Cytomegalovirus infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clinical and autopsy findings,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 112, no. 5, pp. 540–544, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. A. Geller, “The autopsy in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. How and why,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 324–329, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. M. Nelson, S. E. Hassig, M. Kayembe et al., “HIV-1 seropositivity and mortality at University Hospital, Kinshasa, Zaire, 1987,” AIDS, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 583–586, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. K. Kure, J. P. Llena, W. D. Lyman et al., “Human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection of the nervous system: an autopsy study of 268 adult, pediatric, and fetal brains,” Human Pathology, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 700–710, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D. K. Burns, R. C. Risser, and C. L. White, “The neuropathology of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Dallas, Texas, experience,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 115, no. 11, pp. 1112–1124, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. F. Gray, C. Geny, F. Lionnet et al., “Etude neuropathologie de 135 cas adultes de syndrome d’immunodéficience acquise (SIDA),” Annales de Pathologie, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 236–247, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. B. Lucas, M. Odida, and H. Wabinga, “The pathology of severe morbidity and mortality caused by HIV infection in Africa,” AIDS, vol. 5, supplement 1, pp. S143–S148, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  62. A. Mohar, J. Romo, F. Salido et al., “The spectrum of clinical and pathological manifestations of AIDS in a consecutive series of autopsied patients in Mexico,” AIDS, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 467–473, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. B. Afessa, W. Greaves, W. Green et al., “Autopsy findings in HIV-infected inner-city patients,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 132–136, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Koike, Y. Maede, N. Funata, T. Takizawa, M. Fukayama, and Y. Iwasaki, “Pulmonary lesions of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-analysis of 24 Japanese autopsy cases with AIDS,” Japanese Journal of Thoracic Diseases, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 746–755, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  65. A. D'Arminio Monforte, L. Vago, A. Lazzarin et al., “AIDS-defining diseases in 250 HIV-infected patients; a comparative study of clinical and autopsy diagnoses,” AIDS, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1159–1164, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. M. Nelson, J. H. Perriens, B. Kapita et al., “A clinical and pathological comparison of the WHO and CDC case definitions for AIDS in Kinshasa, Zaire: is passive surveillance valid?” AIDS, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 1241–1245, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. B. Lucas, A. Hounnou, C. Peacock et al., “The mortality and pathology of HIV infection in a West African city,” AIDS, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 1569–1579, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. E. C. Klatt, L. Nichols, and T. T. Noguchi, “Evolving trends revealed by autopsies of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: 565 autopsies in adults with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Los Angeles, Calif, 1992-1993,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 118, no. 9, pp. 884–890, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. G. J. Dore, D. J. Marriott, and J. A. Duflou, “Clinico-pathological study of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in AIDS autopsies: under-recognition of CMV pneumonitis and CMV adrenalitis,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 503–506, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. E. Greenberg, S. Lucas, O. Tossou et al., “Autopsy-proven causes of death in HIV-infected patients treated for tuberculosis in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire,” AIDS, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1251–1254, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. Walewska-Zielecka, Z. Kaminski, and A. Nowoslawski, “AIDS pathology: infections and neoplasms in 55 fatal AIDS cases. A postmortem study,” Polish Journal of Pathology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 163–170, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Sehonanda, Y. J. Choi, and S. Blum, “Changing patterns of autopsy findings among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an inner-city population. A 12-year retrospective study,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 120, no. 5, pp. 459–464, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. R. Lyon, A. K. Haque, D. M. Asmuth, and G. L. Woods, “Changing patterns of infections in patients with AIDS: a study of 279 autopsies of prison inmates and nonincarcerated patients at a University Hospital in Eastern Texas, 1984–1993,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 241–257, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  74. T. Yamne, G. Honda, and B. Herndier, “Clinicopathological site specific analysis of 235 AIDS autopsy cases with an emphasis on lymph node changes,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on AIDS, vol. 11, p. 290, July 1996, abstract no. Th. B. 4231.
  75. B. Afessa, W. Green, J. Chiao, and W. Frederick, “Pulmonary complications of HIV infection: autopsy findings,” Chest, vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 1225–1229, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. K. Ohtomo, S. Wang, A. Masunaga, A. Iwamoto, and I. Sugawara, “Secondary infections of AIDS autopsy cases in Japan with special emphasis on Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex infection,” Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 192, no. 2, pp. 99–109, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. Kaiser, LE. P. Weng, W. Brockhaus, and P. H. Wünsch, “Opportunistic infections and HIV-associated malignancies. An evaluation of 58 autopsy cases within 10 years,” Medizinische Klinik, vol. 95, no. 9, pp. 482–486, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. F. S. Rana, M. P. Hawken, C. Mwachari et al., “Autopsy study of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative adult medical patients in Nairobi, Kenya,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 23–29, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. K. A. Jellinger, U. Setinek, M. Drlicek, G. Böhm, A. Steurer, and F. Lintner, “Neuropathology and general autopsy findings in AIDS during the last 15 years,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 213–220, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. E. Masliah, R. M. DeTeresa, M. E. Mallory, and L. A. Hansen, “Changes in pathological findings at autopsy in AIDS cases for the last 15 years,” AIDS, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 69–74, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. N. A. Ansari, A. H. Kombe, T. A. Kenyon et al., “Pathology and causes of death in a group of 128 predominantly HIV-positive patients in Botswana, 1997-1998,” International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 55–63, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. S. A. De Lima Pereira, D. B. Rocha Rodrigues, D. Correia, M. A. Dos Reis, and V. De Paula Antunes Teixeira, “Identification of infectious agents in the lungs in autopsies of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 635–639, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. S. Morgello, R. Mahboob, T. Yakoushina, S. Khan, and K. Hague, “Autopsy findings in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected population over 2 decades: influences of gender, ethnicity, risk factors, and time,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 182–190, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. P. M. Cury, C. F. Pulido, V. M. G. Furtado, and F. M. C. da Palma, “Autopsy findings in AIDS patients from a reference hospital in Brazil: analysis of 92 cases,” Pathology Research and Practice, vol. 199, no. 12, pp. 811–814, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. YU. G. Parkhomenko, O. A. Tishkevich, and V. I. Shakhgildyan, “Analysis of necropsies in HIV infection,” Arkhiv Patologii, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 24–29, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Y. Z. Chen, BO. Y. Tseng, M. H. Lee, L. S. Wang, YI. H. Liu, and Y. H. Hsu, “Autopsy findings on patients with AIDS in Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital,” Tzu Chi Medical Journal, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 409–415, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  87. D. Eza, G. Cerrillo, D. A. J. Moore et al., “Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru,” Pathology Research and Practice, vol. 202, no. 11, pp. 767–775, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  88. H.-J. Tang, Y.-C. Liu, M.-Y. Yen et al., “Opportunistic infections in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a comparison of clinical and autopsy findings,” Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 310–315, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  89. J. Murray, P. Sonnenberg, G. Nelson, A. Bester, S. Shearer, and J. R. Glynn, “Cause of death and presence of respiratory disease at autopsy in an HIV-1 seroconversion cohort of southern African gold miners,” AIDS, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. S97–S104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  90. A. D. M. Soeiro, A. L. D. Hovnanian, E. R. Parra, M. Canzian, and V. L. Capelozzi, “Post-mortem histological pulmonary analysis in patients with HIV/AIDS,” Clinics, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 497–502, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. B. J. Beadsworth, D. Cohen, L. Ratcliffe et al., “Autopsies in HIV: still identifying missed diagnoses,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 84–86, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  92. A. V. Bychkov, A. E. Dorosevich, and J. W. D'Souza, “Postmortem investigations following human immunodeficiency virus infection,” International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and Public Health, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 28–46, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. R. Berger, D. B. Fee, P. Nelson, and G. Nuovo, “Coxsackie B meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and a multiple sclerosislike illness,” Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 282–287, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  94. M. Garcia-Jardon, V. G. Bhat, E. Blanco-Blanco, and A. Stepian, “Postmortem findings in HIV/AIDS patients in a tertiary care hospital in rural South Africa,” Tropical Doctor, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 81–84, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  95. F. Foroudi, K. Cheung, and J. Duflou, “A comparison of the needle biopsy post mortem with the conventional autopsy,” Pathology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 79–82, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. B. M. Huston, N. N. Malouf, and H. A. Azar, “Percutaneous needle autopsy sampling,” Modern Pathology, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1101–1107, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. J. Berenguer, S. Moreno, F. Laguna et al., “Tuberculous meningitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 326, no. 10, pp. 668–672, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. L. Nichols, K. Balogh, and M. Silverman, “Bacterial infections in the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Clinicopathologic correlations in a series of autopsy cases,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 787–790, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. R. S. Wadia, S. N. Pujari, S. Kothari et al., “Neurological manifestations of HIV disease,” Journal of Association of Physicians of India, vol. 49, pp. 343–348, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. J. F. Murray and J. Mills, “Pulmonary infectious complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Part I,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 141, no. 5, pp. 1582–1598, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. R. D. Moore and R. E. Chaisson, “Natural history of opportunistic disease in an HIV-infected urban clinical cohort,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 124, no. 7, pp. 633–642, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. J. S. G. Montaner, T. Le, R. Hogg et al., “The changing spectrum of AIDS index diseases in Canada,” AIDS, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 693–696, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. D. N. Lanjewar, C. Rodrigues, D. G. Saple, S. K. Hira, and H. L. Dupont, “Cryptosporidium, isospora and strongyloides in AIDS,” National Medical Journal of India, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 17–19, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. A. A. Dhir, S. Sawant, R. P. Dikshit et al., “Spectrum of HIV/AIDS related cancers in India,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 147–153, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  105. A. Sharma, J. Bajpai, V. Raina, and B. K. Mohanti, “HIV-associated non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma: experience from a regional cancer center,” Indian Journal of Cancer, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 35–39, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  106. B. Agarwal, U. Ramanathan, N. Lokeshwas et al., “Lymphoid neoplasms in HIV-positive individuals in India,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 181–183, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. D. N. Lanjewar and D. D. Dongaonkar, “HIV-associated primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of ovary: a case report,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 590–592, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  108. N. Kumarasamy, S. Solomon, P. Yesudian, and P. Sugumar, “First report of Kaposi's sarcoma in an AIDS patient from Madras, India,” Indian Journal of Dermatology, vol. 41, pp. 23–25, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  109. E. D. Gatphoh, G. Zamzachin, S. B. Devi, and P. Punyabati, “AIDS related malignant disease at Regional Institute of Medical Sciences,” Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. D. Ablashi, L. Chatlynne, H. Cooper et al., “Seroprevalence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) in countries of Southeast Asia compared to the USA, the Caribbean and Africa,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 893–897, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  111. K. G. Shojania, E. C. Burton, K. M. McDonald, and L. Goldman, “Changes in rates of autopsy-detected diagnostic errors over time: a systematic review,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 289, no. 21, pp. 2849–2856, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus