Table of Contents
Pathology Research International
Volume 2012, Article ID 470101, 5 pages
Research Article

Bladder Cancer Detection Using Electrical Impedance Technique (Tabriz Mark 1)

1Medical Physics Department, Medical Faculty, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2The Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU), Ghazvin, Iran
3The Pathology Department, Medical Faculty, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

Received 7 October 2011; Revised 16 January 2012; Accepted 14 February 2012

Academic Editor: Marco Volante

Copyright © 2012 Ahmad Keshtkar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignant neoplasm in men and the eighth in women. Bladder pathology is usually investigated visually by cystoscopy. In this technique, biopsies are obtained from the suspected area and then, after needed procedure, the diagnostic information can be taken. This is a relatively difficult procedure and is associated with discomfort for the patient and morbidity. Therefore, the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a minimally invasive screening technique, can be used to separate malignant areas from nonmalignant areas in the urinary bladder. The feasibility of adapting this technique to screen for bladder cancer and abnormalities during cystoscopy has been explored and compared with histopathological evaluation of urinary bladder lesions. Ex vivo studies were carried out in this study by using a total of 30 measured points from malignant and 100 measured points from non-malignant areas of patients bladders in terms of their biopsy reports matching to the electrical impedance measurements. In all measurements, the impedivity of malignant area of bladder tissue was significantly higher than the impedivity of non-malignant area this tissue ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 5 ).