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Pain Research and Management
Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 45-50
Anxiety and Related Factors in Chronic Pain

A Short Version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20): Preliminary Development and Validity

Lance M McCracken1 and Lara Dhingra2

1Pain Management Unit, Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Disease and University of Bath, UK
2Institute of Psychology, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Received 19 December 2000; Accepted 5 February 2001

Copyright © 2002 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


BACKGROUND: Research has shown significant relations between fear and avoidance of pain and the suffering and disability of chronic pain. Effective measurement tools have formed the foundation for studying these relations.

METHODS: The present article describes the initial development and validation of the PASS-20, a short form version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS). Like the original inventory, the PASS-20 measures fear and anxiety responses specific to pain. Items were selected for the short version based on item variance, item intercorrelation and reliability analyses.

RESULTS: The PASS-20 shows strong internal consistency, reliability, and good predictive and construct validity. Item reduction appears to result in minimal shrinkage of validity correlations.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results suggest that the short form retains adequate psychometric properties. Possible research and clinical implications for the PASS-20 include more efficient screening during evaluations of patients with chronic pain, and use when the time or effort needed for the full version is prohibitive.