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Letter to the Editor
  • Letter to the Editor, J David Watson
    Pain Research and Management
    Letter to the Editor (Pages 49-49), Issue 1, Volume 12 (2007)
  • Letter to the Editor, John C Clifford
    Pain Research and Management
    Letter to the Editor (Pages 48-48), Issue 1, Volume 12 (2007)
Pain Research and Management
Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 197-199
Case Report

Whiplash Injuries Can be Visible by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Bengt H Johansson

Bengt H Johansson Medical Clinic, Stocksund, Sweden

Copyright © 2006 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Whiplash trauma can result in injuries that are difficult to diagnose. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in injuries to the upper segments of the cervical spine (craniocervical joint [CCJ] complex). Studies indicate that injuries in that region may be responsible for the cervicoencephalic syndrome, as evidenced by headache, balance problems, vertigo, dizziness, eye problems, tinnitus, poor concentration, sensitivity to light and pronounced fatigue. Consequently, diagnosis of lesions in the CCJ region is important. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a radiological technique that can visualize injuries of the ligaments and the joint capsules, and accompanying pathological movement patterns.

Three severely injured patients that had been extensively examined without any findings of structural lesions were diagnosed by functional magnetic resonance imaging to have injuries in the CCJ region.

These injuries were confirmed at surgery, and after surgical stabilization the medical condition was highly improved.

It is important to draw attention to the urgent need to diagnose lesions and dysfunction in the CCJ complex and also improve diagnostic methods.