Pain Research and Management

Pain Research and Management / 2013 / Article

Original Article | Open Access

Volume 18 |Article ID 276923 |

Annabelle Casier, Liesbet Goubert, Tine Vervoort, Marleen Theunis, Danielle Huse, Frans De Baets, Dirk Matthys, Geert Crombez, "Spirometry-Related Pain and Distress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cystic Fibrosis: The Role of Acceptance", Pain Research and Management, vol. 18, Article ID 276923, 7 pages, 2013.

Spirometry-Related Pain and Distress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cystic Fibrosis: The Role of Acceptance


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of spirometry-related pain and distress in adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis (CF), and to investigate the role of acceptance of illness in spirometry-related pain and distress.METHODS: A total of 36 adolescents and young adults with CF (12 to 22 years of age) completed a questionnaire assessing acceptance of illness. Spirometry-related distress was assessed using self-report (ie, anxiety/worry about the procedure) and physiological outcomes (ie, heart rate and heart rate variability) before spirometry. Spirometry-related pain was assessed using self-report (ie, expected pain and pain-related thoughts). Self-reported distress and pain during spirometry were also assessed.RESULTS: Eighty-nine per cent of subjects reported distress before spirometry, 67% experienced distress during spirometry, 28% expected pain during spirometry and 22% actually experienced pain. Interestingly, partial correlations revealed that more acceptance was related to less expected pain and pain-related thoughts. Acceptance, however, was unrelated to distress, anxiety and pain during spirometry.DISCUSSION: The present study suggests that a non-negligible number of adolescents and young adults with CF experience pain and distress during spirometry. Furthermore, results indicate that acceptance may play a protective role in the more indirect consequences of CF such as expected pain and pain-related thoughts during medical procedures. Acceptance, however, was not related to distress before and during spirometry, nor to experienced pain. These findings contribute to the increasing evidence that acceptance may play a protective role in managing the consequences of living with CF.

Copyright © 2013 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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