Original Article | Open Access
Larry M Picard, Lee R Bartel, Allan S Gordon, Davor Cepo, Qi Wu, Leah R Pink, "Music as a Sleep Aid in Fibromyalgia", Pain Research and Management, vol. 19, Article ID 272108, 5 pages, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/272108
Music as a Sleep Aid in Fibromyalgia
BACKGROUND: Interventions to improve sleep in fibromyalgia may generalize to improvements in multiple symptom domains. Delta-embedded music, pulsating regularly within the 0.25 Hz to 4 Hz frequency band of brain wave activity, has the potential to induce sleep.OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of a delta-embedded music program over four weeks for sleep induction in patients with fibromyalgia.METHODS: The present unblinded, investigator-led pilot study used a within-subject design. Analysis was based on 20 individuals with fibromyalgia who completed the study, of the 24 recruited into the study. The primary outcome variables were the change from baseline in Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Jenkins Sleep Scale scores. A patient global impression of change was measured on a seven-point Likert scale. Secondary outcome measures, comprised of items 5, 6 and 7 of the FIQ, were used as indicators of pain, tiredness and being tired on awakening.RESULTS: The FIQ median score of 76.4 (95% CI 61.3 to 82.1) at baseline improved to 60.3 (95% CI 53.1 to 72.0; P=0.004). The Jenkins Sleep Scale median value of 17.5 (95% CI 15.5 to 18.5) at baseline fell to 12.5 (95% CI 8.5 to 14.5; P=0.001) at study completion. The outcomes of the patient global impression of change ratings were mostly positive (P=0.001). Being tired on awakening declined significantly from a median of 9.0 (95% CI 8.0 to 10.0) to 8.0 (95% CI 5.5 to 9.0; P=0.021). However, there was no significant improvement in pain level (baseline median 7.5 [95% CI 7.0 to 8.5] versus study completion median 7.0 [95% CI 6.5 to 8.0]; P=0.335) or tiredness (baseline median 9.0 [95% CI 8.0 to 9.5] versus study completion median 8.0 [95% CI 6.0 to 8.5]; P=0.061). There were no serious adverse events.CONCLUSIONS: Delta-embedded music is a potential alternative therapy for fibromyalgia.
Copyright © 2014 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.