Table 4: Unadjusted and adjusted analysis of association between pain intensity/interference and ≥1 visit to a walk-in clinic or emergency department for pain in the past 12 months.

0 visits≥1 visitPain intensity model OR (95% CI)Pain interference model OR (95% CI)
(%) (%)UnadjustedAdjusted (full)Adjusted (reduced)UnadjustedAdjusted (full)

Physical symptoms
Pain intensity scale (BPI)
 ≤3/10323 (82.6)68 (17.4)1.01.01.0NANANA
 >3/10123 (62.8)73 (37.2)2.82 (1.91–4.16)2.48 (1.59–3.88)2.35 (1.53–3.61)NANANA
Pain interference scale (BPI)
 ≤3/10329 (83.5)65 (16.5)NANANA1.01.01.0
 >3/10117 (60.6)76 (39.4)NANANA3.29 (2.22–4.87)3.01 (1.88–4.83)2.81 (1.80–4.40)

Demographic covariates
Age
 Years (mean (SD))49.7 (11.5)44.3 (9.4)0.95 (0.94–0.97)0.95 (0.93–0.98)0.96 (0.94–0.98)0.95 (0.94–0.97)0.95 (0.93–0.98)0.96 (0.94–0.98)
Marital status
 Single/divorced/widowed130 (77.8)37 (22.2)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Married317 (75.3)104 (24.7)1.15 (0.75–1.77)1.25 (0.77–2.05)1.15 (0.75–1.77)1.25 (0.77–2.05)
Employment status
 Not employed/retired/other166 (81.4)38 (18.6)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Employed full time or part time280 (73.1)103 (26.9)1.61 (1.06–2.44)1.82 (1.10–3.02)1.61 (1.06–2.44)1.85 (1.11–3.07)
Education
 High school diploma or less149 (79.7)38 (20.3)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 More than high school298 (74.3)103 (25.7)1.36 (0.89–2.06)1.24 (0.76–2.04)1.36 (0.89–2.06)1.22 (0.74–2.01)

Clinical covariates
BMI
 ≥30201 (79.1)53 (20.9)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
 <30246 (74.8)83 (25.2)1.28 (0.86–1.89)1.36 (0.87–2.11)1.34 (0.87–2.04)1.28 (0.86–1.89)1.48 (0.94–2.32)1.44 (0.94–2.22)
Current smoker
 No362 (77.8)103 (22.2)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Yes86 (69.9)37 (30.1)1.51 (0.97–2.36)1.08 (0.65–1.80)1.51 (0.97–2.36)1.14 (0.68–1.90)
Previous abdominal surgery
 No144 (80.4)35 (19.6)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Yes301 (74.5)103 (25.5)1.41 (0.91–2.17)1.40 (0.86–2.28)1.41 (0.91–2.17)1.40 (0.85–2.29)

Situational factors
Adjusted days waited
 ≤8 weeks261 (73.9)92 (26.1)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
 >8 weeks186 (79.5)48 (20.5)0.73 (0.49–1.09)0.54 (0.33–0.86)0.63 (0.41–0.97)0.73 (0.49–1.09)0.56 (0.35–0.90)0.65 (0.42–1.00)

Psychological factors
Anxiety and/or depression
 No290 (82.2)63 (17.8)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
 Yes154 (67.0)76 (33.0)2.27 (1.54–3.34)2.00 (1.29–3.11)1.75 (1.15–2.68)2.27 (1.54–3.34)1.74 (1.10–2.74)1.54 (0.99–2.38)

Physiological factors, gynaecological
Current menstruation status
 Not stopped or unsure255 (73.7)91 (26.3)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Stopped surgically or naturally193 (79.4)50 (20.6)0.73 (0.49–1.07)1.74 (0.98–3.08)0.73 (0.49–1.07)1.92 (1.07–3.43)
Taking hormone replacement therapy
 No424 (76.4)131 (23.6)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Yes24 (70.6)10 (29.4)1.35 (0.63–2.89)1.39 (0.60–3.22)1.35 (0.63–2.89)1.34 (0.57–3.14)
Birth control pills in the past month
 No409 (76.4)126 (23.6)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Yes32 (69.6)14 (30.4)1.42 (0.73–2.74)1.01 (0.47–2.19)1.42 (0.73–2.74)1.15 (0.53–2.51)
Preoperative malignancy status
 Possibly/definitely malignant188 (78.7)51 (21.3)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Not malignant259 (74.4)89 (25.6)1.27 (0.86–1.87)1.04 (0.63–1.70)1.27 (0.86–1.87)1.06 (0.64–1.74)

BPI: Brief Pain Inventory, NA: not applicable, and NS: not selected for final model.