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Pain Research and Management
Volume 2016, Article ID 5135176, 14 pages
Research Article

Gender Differences in Symptoms, Health-Related Quality of Life, Sleep Quality, Mental Health, Cognitive Performance, Pain-Cognition, and Positive Health in Spanish Fibromyalgia Individuals: The Al-Ándalus Project

1Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain
2Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands
4Department of Education, Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Almería, Almería, Spain
5Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
6Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Received 22 March 2016; Revised 3 August 2016; Accepted 22 September 2016

Academic Editor: Ellen Thompson

Copyright © 2016 Víctor Segura-Jiménez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To test the gender differences in tenderness, impact of fibromyalgia, health-related quality of life, fatigue, sleep quality, mental health, cognitive performance, pain-cognition, and positive health in Spanish fibromyalgia patients and in age-matched nonfibromyalgia individuals from the same region. To test the optimal cut-off score of the different tender points for women and men. Methods. A total of 405 (384 women) fibromyalgia versus 247 (195 women) nonfibromyalgia control participants from southern Spain (Andalusia) took part in this cross-sectional study. The outcomes studied were assessed by means of several tests. Results. In the fibromyalgia group, men showed better working memory than women (all, ), whereas sleep latency was lower in women compared to men (). In the nonfibromyalgia group, men showed higher pain threshold in all the tender points (all, ), except in right and left lateral epicondyle. Furthermore, men showed better working memory than women (all, ), whereas memory performance was better in women compared to men (all, ). Conclusion. The results of the present study do not support consistent evidence of gender differences in fibromyalgia-related symptoms. However, it seems that detriment of some symptoms (especially pain) in fibromyalgia men compared with their nonfibromyalgia counterparts is greater than those of fibromyalgia women compared with their nonfibromyalgia peers.