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Pain Research and Management
Volume 2016, Article ID 5783817, 6 pages
Research Article

Predictors for Moderate to Severe Acute Postoperative Pain after Cesarean Section

Faculdade de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Rua 227 Qd, 68, s/n, Setor Leste Universitário, Goiânia, GO, Brazil

Received 31 March 2016; Revised 12 October 2016; Accepted 27 October 2016

Academic Editor: Fletcher A. White

Copyright © 2016 Natalia de Carvalho Borges et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Moderate to severe postoperative pain affects performance of daily activities and it contributes to persistent postoperative pain. In patients submitted to cesarean section, this pain can also interfere with women’s ability to care for their babies, to effectively breastfeed, and to satisfactorily interact with their children. Factors influencing the pain perception during the immediate postoperative period have not been widely pursued. Objective. To investigate the incidence and predicting factors of postoperative pain after cesarean section. Methods. A prospective longitudinal study with 1,062 women submitted to cesarean section. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, surgical, and health behavior data. We used the 11-point Numerical Pain and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales. We performed logistic analysis to identify predictors of moderate to severe postoperative pain. Results. The incidence of moderate-severe postoperative pain was 78.4% (CI: 95%: 75.9%–80.8%). The preoperative anxiety (OR = 1.60; CI 95%: 1.22–2.30) and intrathecal morphine with fentanyl (OR = 0,23; CI 95%: 0.08–0.66) were significantly associated with moderate-severe postoperative pain report. Conclusion. The preoperative anxiety increases the risk of moderate-severe postoperative pain in women submitted to cesarean section. The intrathecal morphine with fentanyl added to bupivacaine was a protective factor against this pain.