Pain Research and Management / 2016 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

The Implications of Tobacco Smoking on Acute Postoperative Pain: A Prospective Observational Study

Table 4

Comparisons for postoperative outcomes on male patients.

NonsmokersCurrent-smokersPast-smokers valueAdjusted value
Gr1 versus Gr2Gr2 versus Gr3

POD1VASM15.1 ± 1.85.6 ± 1.85.0 ± 1.80.0440.0900.096
VASR12.3 ± 1.22.9 ± 1.62.2 ± 1.00.0060.0450.208
DOSE1 (mg)25.7 ± 15.032.2 ± 19.825.9 ± 16.70.0040.0110.056
PONV124 (15.4%)23 (17.8%)11 (8.9%)0.113

POD2VASM24.1 ± 1.54.4 ± 1.54.1 ± 1.70.1790.1580.344
VASR21.4 ± 1.11.8 ± 1.31.6 ± 1.00.0620.1270.959
DOSE2 (mg)45.3 ± 25.964.7 ± 38.546.8 ± 28.1<0.001<0.001<0.001
PONV212 (7.6%)5 (3.9%)3 (2.5%)0.106

POD3VASM33.1 ± 1.33.4 ± 1.23.1 ± 1.20.1870.8180.818
VASR30.9 ± 0.61.2 ± 1.00.9 ± 0.80.1850.5840.927
DOSE3 (mg)55.7 ± 32.977.9 ± 49.055.7 ± 33.3<0.001<0.0010.002
PONV34 (2.5%)3 (2.3%)0 (0%)0.213

Satisfied score8.4 ± 0.88.3 ± 1.08.3 ± 0.90.833
Morbidity 20 (13%)21 (16%)20 (17%)0.649

Data were presented as mean ± SD or number (%). Gr1: nonsmokers group; Gr2: current-smokers group; Gr3: past-smokers group; POD1: postoperative day one; POD2: postoperative day two; POD3: postoperative day three; PONV: postoperative nausea and vomiting; VASM: visual analogue scales on movement; VASR: visual analogue scales at rest; DOSE: postoperative morphine consumption; : when compared with nonsmokers or past-smokers. Controlling for age, weight, and surgical duration when dependent variable is DOSE; controlling for age and surgical duration when dependent variable is VASM and VASR.

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