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Pain Research and Management
Volume 2017, Article ID 7375468, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7375468
Research Article

A Preliminary Genome-Wide Association Study of Pain-Related Fear: Implications for Orofacial Pain

1Department of Psychology, West Virginia University, 53 Campus Drive, P.O. Box 6040, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
2Department of Dental Practice & Rural Health, Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA), School of Dentistry, West Virginia University, One Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
3Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 De Soto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
4Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
5Department of Periodontics, Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA), School of Dentistry, West Virginia University, One Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
6Department of Oral Biology, Center for Craniofacial and Dental Genetics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Bridgeside Point Suite 500, 100 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA
7Department of Dental Public Health, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3501 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Daniel W. McNeil; ude.uvw@liencmd and John R. Shaffer; ude.ttip@reffahs.r.nhoj

Received 7 January 2017; Revised 16 March 2017; Accepted 18 April 2017; Published 15 June 2017

Academic Editor: Vahid Rakhshan

Copyright © 2017 Cameron L. Randall et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Acute and chronic orofacial pain can significantly impact overall health and functioning. Associations between fear of pain and the experience of orofacial pain are well-documented, and environmental, behavioral, and cognitive components of fear of pain have been elucidated. Little is known, however, regarding the specific genes contributing to fear of pain. Methods. A genome-wide association study (GWAS; ) was performed to identify plausible genes that may predispose individuals to various levels of fear of pain. The total score and three subscales (fear of minor, severe, and medical/dental pain) of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire-9 (FPQ-9) were modeled in a variance components modeling framework to test for genetic association with 8.5 M genetic variants across the genome, while adjusting for sex, age, education, and income. Results. Three genetic loci were significantly associated with fear of minor pain (8q24.13, 8p21.2, and 6q26; for all) near the genes TMEM65, NEFM, NEFL, AGPAT4, and PARK2. Other suggestive loci were found for the fear of pain total score and each of the FPQ-9 subscales. Conclusions. Multiple genes were identified as possible candidates contributing to fear of pain. The findings may have implications for understanding and treating chronic orofacial pain.