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Pain Research and Management
Volume 2017, Article ID 8296501, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8296501
Review Article

Amygdala Plasticity and Pain

1Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA
2Center of Excellence for Translational Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Volker Neugebauer; ude.cshutt@reuabeguen.reklov

Received 20 July 2017; Accepted 2 November 2017; Published 10 December 2017

Academic Editor: Susanne Becker

Copyright © 2017 Jeremy M. Thompson and Volker Neugebauer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The amygdala is a limbic brain region that plays a key role in emotional processing, neuropsychiatric disorders, and the emotional-affective dimension of pain. Preclinical and clinical studies have identified amygdala hyperactivity as well as impairment of cortical control mechanisms in pain states. Hyperactivity of basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons generates enhanced feedforward inhibition and deactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), resulting in pain-related cognitive deficits. The mPFC sends excitatory projections to GABAergic neurons in the intercalated cell mass (ITC) in the amygdala, which project to the laterocapsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeLC; output nucleus) and serve gating functions for amygdala output. Impairment of these cortical control mechanisms allows the development of amygdala pain plasticity. Mechanisms of abnormal amygdala activity in pain with particular focus on loss of cortical control mechanisms as well as new strategies to correct pain-related amygdala dysfunction will be discussed in the present review.