Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Pain Research and Management
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8328174, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8328174
Review Article

School Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Pain

Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to K. E. Jastrowski Mano

Received 3 July 2017; Accepted 14 August 2017; Published 26 September 2017

Academic Editor: Susanne Becker

Copyright © 2017 K. E. Jastrowski Mano. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. E. Simons, C. B. Sieberg, and R. L. Claar, “Anxiety and functional disability in a large sample of children and adolescents with chronic pain,” Pain Research and Management, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 93–97, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. G. Ramchandani, M. Fazel, A. Stein, N. Wiles, and M. Hotopf, “The impact of recurrent abdominal pain: Predictors of outcome in a large population cohort,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 697–701, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. M. Dufton, M. J. Dunn, and B. E. Compas, “Anxiety and somatic complaints in children with recurrent abdominal pain and anxiety disorders,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 176–186, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. M. E. Knook, J. G. Lijmer, A. Y. Konijnenberg, P. M. Hordijk, and H. Van Engeland, “Quality of life and academic functioning 6 years after paediatric referral for chronic pain,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 101, no. 9, pp. 957–963, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. R. Cunningham, A. Jagpal, S. T. Tran et al., “Anxiety Adversely Impacts Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children with Chronic Pain,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 171, pp. 227–233, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. S. Walker, C. M. Dengler-Crish, S. Rippel, and S. Bruehl, “Functional abdominal pain in childhood and adolescence increases risk for chronic pain in adulthood,” Pain, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 568–572, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. D. Shelby, K. C. Shirkey, A. L. Sherman et al., “Functional abdominal pain in childhood and long-term vulnerability to anxiety disorders,” Pediatrics, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 475–482, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. C. Martínez-Monteagudo, C. J. Inglés, M. V. Trianes, and J. M. García-Fernández, “Profiles of school anxiety: Differences in social climate and peer violence,” Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1023–1042, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  9. H. L. Egger, E. J. Costello, and A. Angolf, “School refusal and psychiatric disorders: A community study,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 797–807, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. J. M. Ingul and H. M. Nordahl, “Anxiety as a risk factor for school absenteeism: What differentiates anxious school attenders from non-attenders?” Annals of General Psychiatry, p. 25, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. A. Kearney, School refusal behavior in youth: A functional approach to assessment and treatment, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. R. J. Ladwig and K. A. Khan, “School health,” Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 210–212, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. A. Kearney and A. M. Albano, “The functional profiles of school refusal behavior: Diagnostic aspects,” Behavior Modification, vol. 28, pp. 147–161, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  14. W. K. Silverman and A. M. Albano, Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (ADIS-IV): Child and Parent Interview Schedules, Graywind Publications, New York, NY, USA, 2004.
  15. C. Hansen, S. L. Sanders, S. Massaro, and C. G. Last, “Predictors of severity of absenteeism in children with anxiety-based school refusal,” Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, vol. 27, pp. 246–254, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  16. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, Va, USA, 5th edition, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. M. P. Mychailyszyn, J. L. Mendez, and P. C. Kendall, “School functioning in youth with and without anxiety disorders: Comparisons by diagnosis and comorbidity,” School Psychology Review, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 106–121, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. Roth-Isigkeit, U. Thyen, H. Stöven, J. Schwarzenberger, and P. Schmucker, “Pain among children and adolescents: restrictions in daily living and triggering factors,” Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. e152–e162, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. F. Sato, K. R. Hainsworth, K. A. Khan, R. J. Ladwig, S. J. Weisman, and W. H. Davies, “School absenteeism in pediatric chronic pain: Identifying lessons learned from the general school absenteeism literature,” Children's Health Care, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 355–372, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. T. Tran, K. E. Jastrowski Mano, K. Anderson Khan, W. H. Davies, and K. R. Hainsworth, “Patterns of anxiety symptoms in pediatric chronic pain as reported by youth, mothers, and fathers,” Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 51–62, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  21. D. E. Logan, R. L. Claar, and L. Scharff, “Social desirability response bias and self-report of psychological distress in pediatric chronic pain patients,” Pain, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 366–372, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. E. Jastrowski Mano, J. R. Evans, S. T. Tran, K. Anderson Khan, S. J. Weisman, and K. R. Hainsworth, “The psychometric properties of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders in pediatric chronic pain,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 999–1011, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. A. Khan, S. T. Tran, K. E. Jastrowski Mano, P. M. Simpson, Y. Cao, and K. R. Hainsworth, “Predicting Multiple Facets of School Functioning in Pediatric Chronic Pain,” Clinical Journal of Pain, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 867–875, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Liakopoulou-Kairis, T. Alifieraki, D. Protagora et al., “Recurrent abdominal pain and headache: Psychopathology, life events and family functioning,” European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 115–122, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. V. Campo, J. Bridge, M. Ehmann et al., “Recurrent Abdominal Pain, Anxiety, and Depression in Primary Care,” Pediatrics, vol. 113, no. 4 I, pp. 817–824, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. R. Cunningham, A. Lynch-Jordan, A. G. Mezoff, M. K. Farrell, M. B. Cohen, and S. Kashikar-Zuck, “Importance of addressing anxiety in youth with functional abdominal pain: Suggested guidelines for physicians,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 469–474, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. J. G. Asmundson and J. Katz, “Understanding the co-occurrence of anxiety disorders and chronic pain: state-of-the-art,” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 888–901, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. L. Martin, P. A. McGrath, S. C. Brown, and J. Katz, “Anxiety sensitivity, fear of pain and pain-related disability in children and adolescents with chronic pain,” Pain Research and Management, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 267–272, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. C. I. Tsao, M. Meldrum, S. C. Kim, and L. K. Zeltzer, “Anxiety Sensitivity and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children With Chronic Pain,” Journal of Pain, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 814–823, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. C. I. Tsao, Q. Lu, S. C. Kim, and L. K. Zeltzer, “Relationships among anxious symptomatology, anxiety sensitivity and laboratory pain responsivity in children,” Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 207–215, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. D. Dorn, J. C. Campo, and S. Thato, “Psychological comorbidity and stress reactivity in children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain and anxiety disorders,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 66–75, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. M. Dufton, M. J. Dunn, L. S. Slosky, and B. E. Compas, “Self-reported and laboratory-based responses to stress in children with recurrent pain and anxiety,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 95–105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. E. Simons and K. J. Kaczynski, “The fear avoidance model of chronic pain: Examination for pediatric application,” Journal of Pain, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 827–835, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. M. Palermo, “Impact of recurrent and chronic pain on child and family daily functioning: A critical review of the literature,” Developmental Behav Pediatr, vol. 21, pp. 58–69, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  35. K. A. Khan, R. J. Ladwig, and S. J. Weisman, “School avoidance among complex pediatric chronic pain patients: Identification and multisystemic treatment,” Pain Research and Management, vol. 11, (Suppl B):63B, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  36. G. Crombez, D. M. L. Van Ryckeghem, C. Eccleston, and S. Van Damme, “Attentional bias to pain-related information: A meta-analysis,” Pain, vol. 154, no. 4, pp. 497–510, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. C. Breuner, M. S. Smith, and W. M. Womack, “Factors Related to School Absenteeism in Adolescents with Recurrent Headache,” Headache, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 217–222, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. J. Kaczynski, R. L. Claar, and A. A. Lebel, “Relations between pain characteristics, child and parent variables, and school functioning in adolescents with chronic headache: A comparison of tension-type headache and migraine,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 351–364, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. E. Logan, L. E. Simons, M. J. Stein, and L. Chastain, “School Impairment in Adolescents With Chronic Pain,” Journal of Pain, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 407–416, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. L. Cohen, K. E. Vowles, and C. Eccleston, “The impact of adolescent chronic pain on functioning: Disentangling the complex role of anxiety,” Journal of Pain, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1039–1046, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. L. Verduin and P. C. Kendall, “Differential occurrence of comorbidity within childhood anxiety disorders,” Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 290–295, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  42. M. Wendland, Y. Jackson, and L. D. Stokes, “Functional disability in paediatric patients with recurrent abdominal pain,” Child: Care, Health and Development, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 516–523, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. Morken, A. M. Sund, and O. M. Linaker, “A help-line for children. Seasonal variations in issues,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 191–197, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Soriani, E. Fiumana, R. Manfredini et al., “Circadian and seasonal variation of migraine attacks in children,” Headache, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 1571–1574, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Saps, C. Blank, S. Khan et al., “Seasonal variation in the presentation of abdominal pain,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 46, pp. 279–284, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  46. M. Saps, S. Hudgens, R. Mody, K. Lasch, V. Harikrishnan, and C. Baum, “Seasonable patterns of abdominal pain consultations among adults and children,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 290–296, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  47. K. E. Jastrowski Mano, R. C. Gibler, L. Rusy, R. J. Ladwig, C. O. Madormo, and K. R. Hainsworth, “Seasonal variation in pediatric chronic pain clinic phone triage call volume,” Pain Management Nursing, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. C. B. Pull, “Current status of knowledge on public-speaking anxiety,” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 32–38, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. E. Logan, S. P. Catanese, R. M. Coakley, and L. Scharff, “Chronic pain in the classroom: Teachers' attributions about the causes of chronic pain,” Journal of School Health, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 248–256, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. L. Fales and P. A. Forgeron, “Commentary: The importance of friendships in youth with chronic pain: The next critical wave of research,” Pediatric Pain Letter, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 35–39, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  51. P. A. Forgeron, P. McGrath, B. Stevens et al., “Social information processing in adolescents with chronic pain: My friends don't really understand me,” Pain, vol. 152, no. 12, pp. 2773–2780, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. C. Heathcote, M. Koopmans, C. Eccleston et al., “Negative Interpretation Bias and the Experience of Pain in Adolescents,” Journal of Pain, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 972–981, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. O. Gureje, “Comorbidity of pain and anxiety disorders,” Current Psychiatry Reports, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 318–322, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. E. Beck, T. A. Lipani, K. F. Baber et al., “Attentional bias to pain and social threat in pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain and pain-free youth before and after performance evaluation,” Pain, vol. 152, no. 5, pp. 1061–1067, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. K. J. Kaczynski, R. Lewis Claar, and A. A. LeBel, “Relations between pain characteristics, child and parent variables, and school functioning in adolescents with chronic headache: A comparison of tension-type headache and migraine,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 351–364, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  56. D. E. Logan, L. E. Simons, and E. Carpino, “Too sick for school? Parent influences on school functioning among children with chronic pain,” Pain, vol. 153, pp. 437–443, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  57. V. E. Cobham, M. R. Dadds, and S. H. Spence, “The role of parental anxiety in the treatment of childhood anxiety,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 893–905, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  58. S. M. Turner, D. C. Beidel, R. Roberson-Nay, and K. Tervo, “Parenting behaviors in parents with anxiety disorders,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 41, pp. 541–554, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  59. J. L. Borelli, P. Smiley, D. K. Bond et al., “Parental Anxiety Prospectively Predicts Fearful Children’s Physiological Recovery from Stress,” Child Psychiatry and Human Development, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 774–785, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. March, Manual for the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), Multi-Health Systems, Inc, Toronto, Canada, 1998.
  61. C. R. Reynolds and B. O. Richmond, “Factor structure and construct validity of “what i think and feel”: The revised children’s manifest anxiety scale,” Journal of Personality Assessment, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 281, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  62. B. Birmaher, D. A. Brent, L. Chiappetta, J. Bridge, S. Monga, and M. Baugher, “Psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): A replication study,” Journal of the American Academy Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1230–1236, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  63. G. N. Holmbeck, A. W. Thill, P. Bachanas et al., “Evidence-based assessment in pediatric psychology: Measures of psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 958–980, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. N. Haynes, D. C. S. Richard, and E. S. Kubany, “Content validity in psychological assessment: a functional approach to concepts and methods,” Psychological Assessment, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 238–247, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. A. Kearney, “Confirmatory factor analysis of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised: Child and parent versions,” Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 139–144, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. G. N. Holmbeck, S. T. Li, J. Verrill Schurman, D. Friedman, and R. Millstein Coakley, “Collecting and managing multisource and multimethod data in studies of pediatric populations,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 5–18, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  67. A. Bernstein and A. Zvielli, “Attention Feedback Awareness and Control Training (A-FACT): Experimental test of a novel intervention paradigm targeting attentional bias,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 18–26, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. A. Waszczuk, H. M. Brown, T. C. Eley, and K. J. Lester, “Attentional control theory in childhood: Enhanced attentional capture by non-emotional and emotional distractors in anxiety and depression,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 11, Article ID e0141535, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. Williams, F. Watts, C. MacLeod, and A. Mathews, Cognitive Psychology and Emotional Disorders, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2nd edition, 1997.
  70. S. G. Hofmann, “Cognitive factors that maintain social anxiety disorder: A comprehensive model and its treatment implications,” Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 193–209, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. M. Kuckertz and N. Amir, “Cognitive biases in social anxiety disorder,” in Social anxiety: Clinical, Developmental, and Social Perspectives, S. G. Hofman and P. M. DiBartolo, Eds., Elsevier, San Diego, Calif, USA, 3rd edition, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  72. C. M. Sylvester, J. J. Hudziak, M. S. Gaffrey, D. M. Barch, and J. L. Luby, “Stimulus-Driven Attention, Threat Bias, and Sad Bias in Youth with a History of an Anxiety Disorder or Depression,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 219–231, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. B. Van Bockstaele, B. Verschuere, H. Tibboel, J. De Houwer, G. Crombez, and E. H. W. Koster, “A review of current evidence for the causal impact of attentional bias on fear and anxiety,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 682–721, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. C. Boyer, B. E. Compas, C. Stanger et al., “Attentional bias to pain and social threat in children with recurrent abdominal pain,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 31, pp. 209–220, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  75. S. M. C. Van Der Veek, B. H. F. Derkx, R. D. Plak et al., “Attentional bias to activity of different parts of the body in children with functional abdominal pain: An experimental study,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 438–449, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. C. Eccleston and G. Crombez, “Pain demands attention: a cognitive-affective model of the interruptive function of pain,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 356–366, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. Y. Dong, A. De Beuckelaer, L. Yu, and R. Zhou, “Eye-movement evidence of the time-course of attentional bias for threatening pictures in test-anxious students,” Cognition and Emotion, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 781–790, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. A. Bittner, H. L. Egger, A. Erkanli, E. Jane Costello, D. L. Foley, and A. Angold, “What do childhood anxiety disorders predict?” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1174–1183, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. C. A. Kearney, “School absenteeism and school refusal behavior in youth: a contemporary review,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 451–471, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. L. S. Walker, A. L. Sherman, S. Bruehl, J. Garber, and C. A. Smith, “Functional abdominal pain patient subtypes in childhood predict functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic pain and psychiatric comorbidities in adolescence and adulthood,” Pain, vol. 153, no. 9, pp. 1798–1806, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. E. Fisher, L. Heathcote, T. M. Palermo, C. de Williams, A. C. J. Lau, and C. Eccleston, “Systematic review and meta-analysis: psychological therapies for children with chronic pain,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 763–782, 2014. View at Google Scholar