Pulmonary system changes in the elderly.
|(i) Decreased chest wall compliance due to changes in muscle and chest wall joints|| |
|(ii) Increased lung compliance due to loss in parenchymal elasticity|| |
|(iii) Decreased lung parenchymal surface area leading to decreased efficiency of alveolar gas exchange due to increase in dead space and shunt|| |
|(iv) Decrease FEV1, decreased TV, and increased RR|| |
|(v) Hypotonia of pharyngeal muscles leading to upper airway obstruction|| |
|(vii) Decreased responsiveness to hypercapnia and hypoxia|| |
|(viii) Increased work of breathing|| |