Pain Research and Treatment / 2014 / Article / Tab 6

Review Article

Perioperative Multimodal Anesthesia Using Regional Techniques in the Aging Surgical Patient

Table 6

Pulmonary system changes in the elderly.

(i) Decreased chest wall compliance due to changes in muscle and chest wall joints
(ii) Increased lung compliance due to loss in parenchymal elasticity
(iii) Decreased lung parenchymal surface area leading to decreased efficiency of alveolar gas exchange due to increase in dead space and shunt
(iv) Decrease FEV1, decreased TV, and increased RR
(v) Hypotonia of pharyngeal muscles leading to upper airway obstruction
(vii) Decreased responsiveness to hypercapnia and hypoxia
(viii) Increased work of breathing

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.