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Plastic Surgery International
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 165824, 7 pages
Review Article

Reconstruction of Mandibular Defects Using Bone Morphogenic Protein: Can Growth Factors Replace the Need for Autologous Bone Grafts? A Systematic Review of the Literature

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
2Department of Dental Implants, University of Milan, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy

Received 7 July 2011; Revised 7 September 2011; Accepted 11 September 2011

Academic Editor: Neal D. Futran

Copyright © 2011 Alan S. Herford et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Autogenous bone is still considered the “gold standard” of regenerative and reconstructive procedures involving mandibular defects. However, harvesting of this material can lead to many complications like increasing morbidity, expanding of the surgical time, and incomplete healing of the donor site. In the last few years many authors looked for the development of effective reconstruction procedures using osteoinductive factors without the need for conventional bone grafting. The first-in-human study involving the use of Bone Morphongenic Proteins (rhBMP) for mandibular reconstruction was performed in 2001 by Moghadam. Only few articles have been reported in the literature since then. The purpose of this study was to search and analyze the literature involving the use of rhBMP for reconstruction of mandibular defects. In all the studies reported, authors agree that the use of grown factors may represent the future of regenerative procedures with more research necessary for confirmation.