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Plastic Surgery International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 580769, 6 pages
Research Article

A Comparative Study of Facial Asymmetry in Philippine, Colombian, and Ethiopian Families with Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip Palate

1Dentistry Faculty, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 N0. 40-00, Bogotá, Colombia
2Operation Smile Inc., 6435 Tidewater Drive, Norfolk, VA 23509, USA
3Operation Smile Philippines Foundation Inc., 19th Floor, UCPB Corporate Offices Building, 7907 Makati Avenue, 1209 Makati City, Philippines
4Operation Smile Ethiopia, 2nd Floor Office Number 206 D, Tebaber Berta Building, Ethio-Chinese Friendship Road, P.O. Box 12129, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Received 31 July 2012; Revised 28 September 2012; Accepted 7 October 2012

Academic Editor: Nicolo Scuderi

Copyright © 2012 Liliana Otero et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To compare the asymmetry displayed by Philippine, Colombian, and Ethiopian unaffected parents of patients with nonsyndromic cleft palate (NSCLP) and a control population. Methods. Facial measurements were compared between unaffected parents of NSCLP patients and those in the control group for three populations from South America, Asia, and Africa by anthropometric and photographic measurements. Fluctuating and directional asymmetries, height and width proportions, were analyzed and compared. Results. Fluctuating asymmetries (ear length, middle line to Zigion perpendicular for left and right sides) and variations in the facial thirds demonstrated statistical significance in the study group of unaffected parents from Colombia and Philippines, while increased interorbital distance was evident in the unaffected Ethiopian parents of NSCLP patients. Conclusions. The facial differences in unaffected parents could indicate an underlying genetic liability. Identification of these differences has relevance in the understanding of the etiology of NSCLP.