Table of Contents
Magnetic and Electrical Separation
Volume 9 (1999), Issue 3, Pages 169-188

Review of Magnetic Carrier Technologies for Metal Ion Removal

Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, McGill University, Wong Building, 3610 University, Montréal H3A 2B2, Canada

Received 3 June 1998; Accepted 2 September 1998

Copyright © 1999 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Magnetic carriers are magnetic materials designed to bind selectively on some non -magnetic materials to make them separable using magnetic separation. It allows magnetic separation, a fast, efficient, high capacity and well-developed industrial technology, to be applied to the separation of materials that are otherwise non-magnetic. One application is in metal ion recovery from dilute effluents. Magnetic carrier technologies offer some advantages over other more conventional metal ion separation techniques such as ion exchange, carbon adsorption, and precipitation. Various magnetic carrier technologies have been developed using different magnetic materials (for example, micro-sized magnetite of magnetic oils) and controlling the attachment of the carrier to the target species through specific binding mechanisms (for example, electrostatic adsorption or chemical affinity). A full-scale industrial water treatment application is illustrated in the case of the Sirofloc process. The review summarizes the efforts over the last twenty years to develop carriers with high loading capacity and selectivity. General principles for the design of magnetic carriers are summarized.