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Psyche publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of basic entomology. Psyche is the official publication of the Cambridge Entomological Club, which founded the journal in 1874.
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Dimorphic Sessile Apterae of the Aphid Neothoracaphis glaucae (Hemiptera) on the Evergreen Oak Quercus glauca
Species of the aphid genus Neothoracaphis (Hormaphidinae, Nipponaphidini) produce tiny, sessile, sclerotized apterous adults on leaves of oaks. Among Japanese species, “N. glaucae” has been known to have the largest, ovate apterae, while “N. saramaoensis” has smaller, elongated oval apterae on Quercus glauca. Through examining mitochondrial DNA sequences of Japanese Neothoracaphis species, we found that the two are the same species with a clear dimorphism. Neothoracaphis glaucae (Takahashi) was adopted as the valid name for the species. In Tokyo, Japan, apterae of the smaller type are abundantly seen throughout the year, and those of the larger type are generally few in number from summer to autumn. Alates, which are supposed to be sexuparae, appear from November to January. Nymphs developing into the alates are covered with long, semitransparent, bristle-like wax filaments. We conclude that N. querciphaga, N. elongata, and N. yanonis are distinct species and that both the genus Neothoracaphis and the three Neothoracaphis species other than N. yanonis form monophyletic groups among Japanese Nipponaphidini species we have examined.
Richness of Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a Forest Remnant in a Transition Region of Eastern Amazonia
Eastern Amazonia is an area with great biological diversity that has suffered rapid deforestation and forest fragmentation over the years. Because of the scarcity of data on the fauna and flora, the northwest of the state of Maranhão has become a priority area for studies that seek to gain a better understanding of bee fauna. Between August 2013 and December 2014, in collections at two-month intervals, a total of 1047 bees belonging to 70 species were collected using two methods (an insect net and scent-baited traps). Apinae was the most abundant subfamily and had the greatest species richness (63 species and 1039 individuals); the most notable tribes in this subfamily were Meliponini (20 species and 445 individuals) and Euglossini (24 species and 452 individuals). In all, 62.8% of the total richness was sampled with an insect net and 34.2% with bait traps. Bees were present in every collection month, and August and December were the months with the greatest richness and abundance, respectively. Although the species accumulation curve did not stabilize, the results were positive as three new species were recorded for the Maranhão state: Bombus transversalis (Olivier, 1789); Xylocopa suspecta Moure and Camargo, 1988; and Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier, 1841, and eleven for the Amazonian region of the state.
On Farm Evaluation of Eucalyptus globulus Labill Leaf and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Whole Plant Powder against Storage Insect Pests in Stored Maize at Sokoru District in Jimma Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
Maize is the second most widely grown cereal and gaining importance as a highly nutritious crop in Ethiopia. However, it is severely destroyed by storage insect pests and needs further research to minimize losses. In line with this, research was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of two botanical plant powders (Eucalyptus globulus Labill leaf and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. whole plant) against storage insect pests of maize grains of two maize varieties (BH-661 and Limu) in polypropylene sacks storage conditions at Jimma Zone, Sokoru district. The plant powders were compared with untreated control, and completely randomized design was used in the experiment with three replications for each treatment. Germination capacity, thousand grain weights, percent of insect damage, and weight loss of the stored grains were evaluated and reported in the range of 69.67–94.33%, 318.7–339.3 g, 3.67–50%, and 0.2843–5.22%, respectively, after five months of storage for grains treated with botanicals. However, germination capacity of 10% and 65.33%, percent insect damage of 80.33% and 48%, and weight loss of 23.53% and 5.89% were observed for BH-661 and Limu varieties, respectively, after five months of storage for untreated control. The result indicated that both tested botanicals were effective in protecting the storage insect pests and maintaining the quality of the grains tested in comparison with control and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. whole plant powder is more effective. Although there was significant protective effect compared to untreated control, their effectiveness was decreased drastically after five and three months of storage for Chenopodium ambrosioides L. whole plant powder and Eucalyptus globulus Labill leaf powder, respectively. It is recommended that further research should be done to check if the increasing rate of application increases protection duration of these botanicals and the toxicity of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. should be further studied to use it as a storage insect protectant of maize grains intended for food purpose.
Integrated Management of Haricot Bean Foliage Beetle in Northeastern Ethiopia
A field experiment was conducted to determine the integrated effect of planting dates, insecticides, and their interaction on the reduction of yield and yield related components of haricot bean caused by haricot bean foliage beetle damage at Sirinka Agriculture Research Center, Ethiopia. Planting dates were normal planting (NP) and late planting (10 days after normal planting) (LP), while insecticides comprised Apron star seed dressing (A) and without insecticide (WI). The combined analysis revealed that late planting combined with Apron star seed dressing (LPA) resulted in the highest yield (1223.7 Kg/ha). On the other hand, normal planting date without insecticide application (NPWI) gave the lowest yield (209.6 kg/ha) and the maximum yield loss (209.6%). The cost-benefit analysis showed that use of LPA gave by far better high net profit over control. Thus, LPA are recommended for haricot bean foliage beetle management in northeastern Ethiopia.
Population Traits and a Female Perspective for Aglae and Exaerete, Tropical Bee Parasites (Hymenoptera, Apinae: Euglossini)
Size variation of both males and females leads to taxonomic confusion regarding wholly parasitic euglossines. The six most widespread species, Exaerete frontalis, E. smaragdina, E. dentata, E. trochanterica, E. lepeletieri, and Aglae caerulea, ranged from 12.5 to 28 mm in length (n = 522; 50 females; 472 males), and within species, some were 40-80% larger than others. The size of E. lepeletieri matches E. smaragdina and E. dentata, but not E. frontalis, which it was said to resemble. Female E. lepeletieri, here described from Amazonian Ecuador, has a range shown to also include French Guiana and Suriname. Female Aglae and Exaerete were larger than males. Statistically, female Exaerete tended toward larger individuals more than did males. Each species should parasitize Eulaema and Eufriesea that have comparable size and provisions; thus multiple hosts may cause parasite size variation. Unknown factors may promote host resource partitioning between sympatric parasites, which include up to six in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, the richest known euglossine community. Scutellum and metafemur punctation, sculpture and the frontal knob of both sexes, and male mesotibial tuft and metafemur permit easy identification of the six common species and E. azteca. Existence of E. kimseyae in Panama is questionable, while E. dentata there is certainly rare. The female tibial scoop, a structure in both Aglae and Exaerete, with a proposed function in material transport, is discussed. No new phylogenetic interpretation is presented.
The Hindwings of Ants: A Phylogenetic Analysis
In this study, we compare and analyze different ant taxa hindwing morphologies with phylogenetic hypotheses of the Family Formicidae (Hymenoptera). The hindwings are classified into three Typologies based on progressive veins reduction. This analysis follows a revision of the hindwing morphology in 291 extant and eight fossil genera. The distribution of different Typologies was analyzed in the two Clades: Formicoid and Poneroid. The results show a different distribution of Typologies, with a higher genera percentage of hindwings of Typology I in the Clade Poneroid. A further analysis, based on genetic affinities, was performed by dividing the Clades into Subclades, showing a constant presence of hindwings of Typology I in almost all the Subclades, albeit with a different percentage. The presence of hindwings of Typology I (hypothesized as more ancestral) in the Subclades, indicates the genera that could be morphologically more similar to their ancestral ones. This study represents the first revision of the ants’ hindwings, showing an overview of the distribution of different Typologies.