Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Subsp. angustifolia and Lavandula dentata Spp. dentata Essential Oils against Culex pipiens Larvae, Vector of West Nile VirusRead the full article
Psyche publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of basic entomology. Psyche is the official publication of the Cambridge Entomological Club, which founded the journal in 1874.
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A Description and Examination of Fluorescence in Nine North American Firefly Species (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)
Fluorescence across the family Lampyridae has been documented sporadically but not comprehensively in formal research. Fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), best known for their bioluminescence, are also fluorescent. This fluorescence has been documented in several genera within the clade but is still an often overlooked aspect of firefly physiology in the common understanding of the species. To this end, the purpose of this study was to document and describe the fluorescence in nine species of North American fireflies, across three genera. Each species was photographed and a description of the fluorescent pattern was provided, as well as measurements of the specific spectral sensitivity of the fluorescent excitation and emission wavelengths. These data are intended to provide an identification guide of sorts to different firefly fluorescence, as well as documenting definitively its presence in several firefly genera.
The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the American Palm Cixiid, Haplaxius crudus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae)
Haplaxius crudus Van Duzee is a pest of various economically important palms due to its ability to transmit lethal yellowing, a fatal phytoplasma infection. It is also the putative vector of lethal bronzing in Florida, another lethal phytoplasma disease causing significant economic losses. To date, no mitochondrial genomes for species in the family Cixiidae are sequenced. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of H. crudus was sequenced, assembled, and annotated from PacBio Sequel II long sequencing reads using the University of Florida’s HiPerGator. The mitogenome of H. crudus is 15,848 bp long and encodes 37 mitochondrial genes (including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs) in addition to a putative noncoding internal control region. The nucleotide composition of H. crudus is asymmetric with a bias toward A/T (44.8 %A, 13.4 %C, 8.5 %G, and 33.3 %T). Protein-coding genes (PCGs) possess the standard invertebrate mitochondrial start codons with few exceptions while the gene content and order of the H. crudus mitogenome is highly similar to most completely sequenced insect mitochondrial genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the entire mitogenome shows H. crudus resolving closely to Delphacidae, the accepted sister taxon of Cixiidae. These data provide a useful resource for developing novel primer sets that could aid in either phylogenetic studies or population genetic studies. As more full mitogenomes become available in the future for other planthopper species, more robust phylogenies can be constructed, giving more accurate perspectives on the evolutionary relationships within this fascinating and economically important group of insects.
Diversity and Trophic Relationships of Functional Groups of Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus Latreille, 1802) in Urban Habitats
Species composition, distribution, and trophic relationships of bumblebees are studied in six types of urban habitat: urban parks, botanical gardens, least-disturbed areas within the city, residential areas, and roadsides. Twenty bumblebee species are recorded in the present study. The species composition of bumblebees has changed from 1933 to 2017. Rare species have disappeared from the city—Bombus fragrans, B. cullumanus, and B. jonellus. The core of urban bumblebee communities consists of ecologically plastic species, most of which belong to the functional morphoecological “short-tongued” group (83%). The more specialized “medium-tongued” and “long-tongued” species are less diverse. Their populations make up 14% and 3% of the total bumblebee population. Five most common species, B. lucorum, B. terrestris, B. lapidarius, B. pascuorum, and B. hypnorum, are found at locations of the most noted categories of habitats. One of the main factors affecting the diversity of morphoecological groups of bumblebees in urban conditions is the state of floral resources. The bumblebees are observed feeding on more than 60 plant species of the families Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae in urban environment; however, the insects favored plants of 30 species. The ornamental, ruderal, and some invasive species of plants are significant in bumblebees’ feeding in urban conditions. The resources for bumblebee feeding and sustainable density of nesting sites are rich in quality and quantity only at a few of model urban sites. At these territories, the highest species diversity of bumblebee is recorded, including rare, protected, and vulnerable species. The ecological potential of other studied urban sites is enough to sustain the most ecologically plastic bumblebee species.
Antioviposition and Reduction of Callosobruchus chinensis Pic. 1902 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Emergence on Phaseolus vulgaris by Dioscorea sansibarensis Powder and Its Chemical Composition
Callosobruchus chinensis causes damage to the Phaseolus vulgaris seeds. Traditionally, Dioscorea sansibarensis serves as a medicinal plant. Naturally, D. sansibarensis has toxins that protect against herbivores and the surrounding invasive plants in its natural habitat. Phytochemical analysis by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and laboratory experiments was carried out to determine the activity of D. sansibarensis leaves, bulbils, and yams powders on antioviposition and inhibition of the F1 emergence of C. chinensis. Bioassay data were subjected to nonparametric (Kolmogorov–Smirnov) statistical analysis and a generalized linear model at . Statistically, the powders had an antioviposition activity of 34.3% (R2 = 0.343). A recommendable activity on antioviposition was displayed by the yams powder; treatment by 0.8 g of yams powder had a Wald Chi-Square value of 1.291, . Inhibition of F1 emergence was significantly attained by the yams powder; the treatment by 0.6 g of yams powder had a Wald Chi-Square value of 7.72, . Statistically, the bulbils powder displayed low antioviposition and inhibition of F1 emergence. Observations on the TLC exposed compounds with similar Rf values; saponin with an Rf value of 0.72 was portrayed in the leaves, bulbils, and yams. A terpenoid and a flavonoid with Rf values of 0.37 and 0.71, respectively, were observed in bulbils and yams but absent in leaves. A terpenoid with an Rf value of 0.49 was visualized in leaves and bulbils but not in the yams powder. The study concluded that the D. sansibarensis yams and leaves powders are viable for application by the farmers in the protection of stored legumes against attack by C. chinensis. However, there may be other diverse interests in other storage insects and other methods of phytochemical analysis that have not been investigated.
Nutritional Effects of Three Mulberry Varieties on Silkworms in Torbat Heydarieh
This research was conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of the silkworm hybrid reared with three varieties of mulberry leaves. In this study, the silkworms were fed with leaves from Kenmochi (Morus bombycis), native mulberry (Morus alba L.), and black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) trees and their influence on the leaf ingested, leaf digested, cocoon weight, efficiency of feed consumption to cocoon shell, efficiency of digested feed to cocoon shell weight, efficiency of digested feed to cocoon weight, and efficiency of feed consumption to cocoon weight was studied in the Torbat Heydarieh region. The results showed that silkworms that consumed leaves of Kenmochi had better performance. Also, they had better performance for traits of cocoon shell weight, feed efficiency to cocoon shell weight, and feed efficiency to cocoon weight. Therefore, Kenmochi tree is suggested for development of sericulture in the region.
Dimorphic Sessile Apterae of the Aphid Neothoracaphis glaucae (Hemiptera) on the Evergreen Oak Quercus glauca
Species of the aphid genus Neothoracaphis (Hormaphidinae, Nipponaphidini) produce tiny, sessile, sclerotized apterous adults on leaves of oaks. Among Japanese species, “N. glaucae” has been known to have the largest, ovate apterae, while “N. saramaoensis” has smaller, elongated oval apterae on Quercus glauca. Through examining mitochondrial DNA sequences of Japanese Neothoracaphis species, we found that the two are the same species with a clear dimorphism. Neothoracaphis glaucae (Takahashi) was adopted as the valid name for the species. In Tokyo, Japan, apterae of the smaller type are abundantly seen throughout the year, and those of the larger type are generally few in number from summer to autumn. Alates, which are supposed to be sexuparae, appear from November to January. Nymphs developing into the alates are covered with long, semitransparent, bristle-like wax filaments. We conclude that N. querciphaga, N. elongata, and N. yanonis are distinct species and that both the genus Neothoracaphis and the three Neothoracaphis species other than N. yanonis form monophyletic groups among Japanese Nipponaphidini species we have examined.