Basic Developmental Characteristics of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Reared under Laboratory ConditionsRead the full article
Psyche publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of basic entomology. Psyche is the official publication of the Cambridge Entomological Club, which founded the journal in 1874.
Chief Editor Dr Ai-Ping Liang is based at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. His research interests center around the taxonomy, morphology, phylogeny, evolution and biogeography of spittlebug superfamily Cercopoidea and planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea.
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Study on Ectoparasites of Free-Ranging Domestic Cats (Felidae; Felis catus) and Introducing Trichodectes canis as a New Record Louse in Tehran Urban Parks, Iran
Free-ranging domestic cats (Felidae, Felis catus) can potentially play host to some life-threatening zoonotic pathogens including ectoparasites such as fleas, ticks, and lice. These ectoparasites are capable of transmitting zoonotic disease. Cats (Felis catus) were captured using baited cage traps with raw red meat from five parks in central areas of Tehran, Iran, in the summer of 2018. The collected cats were moved to the laboratory, and their ectoparasites were removed from their skin by forceps and combing for five minutes for each cat. Ectoparasites were stored in 70% ethanol and later mounted for identification of species, using species identification keys. Forty-one cats were collected from these study areas. Among all captured cats, 26 specimens (63.41%) were infected with 83 ectoparasites and the average infection rate was 3.19 in cats. Six arthropod species were identified, including four fleas (89.16%), one louse (8.43%), and one tick (2.41%). The four flea species included Ctenocephalides canis (39.76%), Ctenocephalides felis (18.07%), Xenopsylla nubica (16.87%), and Pulex irritans (14.46%). The one louse species was Trichodectes canis (8.43%), and the one tick species recovered was identified as Hyalomma spp. (2.41%). Based on the findings, Ctenocephalides canis was the most common ectoparasite species (39.76%). Fleas were the most prevalent ectoparasites on Felis catus cats, with the highest prevalence, observed for Ctenocephalides canis. Due to the large and growing population of cats and the high risk of transmission of common diseases between humans and cats, as well as the high contact and communication of people with cats, we were encouraged to study the ectoparasites of cats in five important parks in the city of Tehran.
Evaluation of Pathogenicity of Entomopathogenic Oomycetes Lagenidium giganteum and L. ajelloi against Anopheles Mosquito Larvae
Malaria is a mosquito-borne life-threatening parasitic disease of humans and the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the major efforts made towards malaria control, it is facing challenges of development of parasite resistance towards antimalarial drugs coupled with Anopheles vector resistance towards insecticides being used in control. There is, therefore, a need to develop complementary control strategies that are economical and environmentally friendly. Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi against the immature malaria mosquito vectors presents an untapped opportunity. This study sought to isolate and characterize entomopathogenic oomycetes Lagenidium giganteum and L. ajelloi from wild Anopheles larvae from Ahero rice fields in western Kenya and test their pathogenicity against laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae larvae. Laboratory-reared A. gambiae larvae (3rd and 4th instar) were exposed to five different concentrations of L. giganteum and L. ajelloi zoospores; 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 zoospores/mL, respectively. The larval mortality was recorded after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post-exposure, until all larvae were dead. The results obtained showed that L. giganteum was not pathogenic to A. gambiae larvae after 24 and 48 hours post-exposure to all concentrations. Larval mortality was recorded at 72 and 96 hours. There were no significant differences observed in the mortalities from all treatments. No mortalities were observed in deionized water (negative control) whereas 100% mortality was recorded in larvae exposed to Bti (positive control). Probit analysis showed that LC50 after 72 hours and 96 hours was 2.32 × 104 and 3.51 × 103 zoospores/ml, respectively. L. ajelloi caused larval mortalities at all the 5 test concentrations after 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-hours post-exposure with LC50 values of 1.18 × 105, 1.43 × 104, and 6.05 × 102, and 27.08 zoospores/ml, respectively. This study isolated and tested two species of Lagenidium from field collected larvae. Lagenidium ajelloi recorded greater pathogenicity than that of L. giganteum against A. gambiae larvae, making them potential candidates for use in the development of bio-larvicide for the control of Anopheles larvae.
Endophytic Potential and Larvicidal Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungi against the Spotted Stem Borer, Chilo partellus
Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) of different genera are known to have the potential to engage in fungus-plant interactions as fungal endophytes. This hidden endophytic interaction offers several advantages to host plants, such as insect pest management. Hence, this study aimed to explore the endophytic potential and virulence of EPF collections after artificial inoculation. A total of 27 EPF isolates from the genera Beauveria and Metarhizium were screened for virulence. Two inoculation methods (leaf and seed dressing) were used to study the endophytic colonisation potential of the selected isolates. There was a significant variation among the tested isolates in their ability to kill C. partellus larvae. Lower mean percentage mortality was recorded for isolates B4, DS-51-21, and B1,9 which scored 28.01%, 32.29%, and 34.58%, respectively. All the screened EPF isolates were able to colonise maize tissues after artificial inoculation, except for APPRC-34GM. The percent colonisation of maize tissues varied with strains, and delivery methods ranged from a minimum of 0% to a maximum of 53%, where the maximum was recorded by S#10H. Larval mortality after feeding maize leaves inoculated with EPF ranged from 18% to 60%. The findings of this study indicated that Beauveria spp. and Metarhizium spp. have the potential to colonise maize after artificially inoculating and translocating from the site of infection. Hence, the potential to move from the site of infection and larvicidal activity after colonisation may give the advantage to manage insect pests acting on the different parts of maize.
Evaluation of Locally Available Botanicals for the Management of Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.) in Room Storage Condition
From April to July 2019, an experiment was conducted in Khumaltar, Lalitpur (27°39.312′N, 85° 19.586′E, and 1322 m above sea level) to assess the effectiveness of plant materials on maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.) control under laboratory conditions (maintained room temperature of 28.5 ± 2°C, and relative humidity of 72 ± 5%) treatments were Acorus calamus (rhizome powder) @ 5 g·kg−1, Melia azadirach (rhizome powder) seed) @ 5 g·kg−1, Curcuma domestica (rhizome powder) @ 5 g·kg−1, mustard oil @ 2 mL·kg−1, Gingiber officinalis (rhizome powder) @ 5 g·kg−1, rice husk ash @ 5 g·kg−1, and an untreated control. These treatments were evaluated in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. At four months, the grains treated with Acorus calamus had the least weight loss (6.66%), and grain damage (1.23%). Grain damage (18%), and weight loss (62.33%) were the highest in the control treatment. Similarly, grains treated with Acorus calamus had the fewest number of exit holes (3.10 per 100 g of maize seed), while the control treatment had the largest number of exit holes (45.10 per 100 g of maize seed). There was a significantly higher number of weevils in the control treatment (55.80 per 250 g maize grains), but only a few numbers of weevils in the Acorus calamus-treated grains (2.50 per 250 g maize grains). In contrast with other plant materials treated grains, the maize weevil showed a reduced preference for Acorus calamus- treated grains with low weight loss, and grain damage. These findings can be used to promote locally accessible botanicals for maize weevil control in Nepal.
Evaluation of Castor (Ricinus communis L.) Genotypes and Their Feeding Values on Rearing Performance of Eri Silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Southwest Ethiopia
The quality of feed plays an important role in the growth and development of silkworms and eventually in the economic traits of cocoons. This study was conducted to evaluate ten castors (Ricinus communis L.) genotypes and their feeding values on the rearing performance of Eri Silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) at Tepi, southwest Ethiopia. A total of ten castor genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), and the suitability of castor genotypes as feed for a mixed strain of Eri-silkworm was also evaluated in a completely randomized design (CRD) under laboratory conditions. A hundred worms were used in each replication. Castor genotypes showed significant differences in fresh leaf yield. Among the castor genotypes tested, genotype 219645 recorded 439 g of ten fresh leaf yields. Results of Eri-silkworm rearing performance depict that a shorter larval period (22 days), a higher effective rate of rearing (94.54%), and a shorter life cycle (58 days) were observed in Eri-silkworm fed on leaves of the 200390 genotype, while a higher larval weight (6.16 g) was recorded in the Abaro genotype. However, higher cocoon weight (3.26 g), pupal weight (2.46 g), shell weight (0.45 g), and silk ratio (13.80%) were found in Eri-silkworms fed on leaves of genotype 219645. Hence, based on silkworm rearing performance, genotype 219645 showed relatively superior results and is recommended for future development work. Further studies should continue giving more emphasis to the multilocation study of genotype 219645 to understand its performance in the diverse growing environment.
Larvicidal Effects of Nanoliposomes Containing Clove and Cinnamon Essential Oils, Eugenol, and Cinnamaldehyde against the Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston
The use of larvicides, especially in endemic regions, is recommended for malaria control. However, due to the excessive use of synthetic larvicides, resistance in mosquitoes and environmental pollution have been challenges. In the current study, nanoliposome containing clove and cinnamon essential oils and their major ingredients, i.e., eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, were first prepared; particle size and successful loading were investigated using DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering) and ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform InfraRed) analysis. Larvicidal effects of the nanoliposomes and nonformulated samples were then investigated against Anopheles stephensi. The best-observed efficacy (LC50 5.4 μg/mL) was related to nanoliposomes containing eugenol with a particle size of 109 ± 4 nm. However, LC50 values of the other three nanoformulations were also around 10 μg/mL; all four prepared nanoformulations were thus introduced as natural larvicides for further investigations in the field conditions.